|Scientific Name:||Agonostomus monticola|
|Species Authority:||(Bancroft, 1834)|
Agonostoma microps Günther, 1861
Agonostoma nasutum Günther, 1861
Agonostoma percoides Günther, 1861
Agonostoma squamipinne Mohr, 1927
Agonostomus hancocki Seale, 1932
Agonostomus macracanthus Regan, 1907
Anostomus salvini Regan, 1907
Dajaus elongatus Kner, 1863
Joturus daguae Eigenmann, 1918
Mugil irretitus Gosse, 1851
Mugil monticola Griffith & Smith, 1834
Neomugil digueti Vaillant, 1894
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, apparently stable trend, and lack of major threats.
|Range Description:||Agonostomus monticola Bancroft (Mountain Mullet), is a diadromous species found in marine, brackish, and freshwaters from the Atlantic slope of tropical and subtropical North America (Rohde 1976, 1980) to northern South America (Greenfield and Thomerson 1997, Miller et al. 2005). Its Atlantic range includes the West Indies and the Caribbean coast of Mexico to Venezuela (Greenfi eld and Thomerson 1997, Miller et al. 2005). Along the Pacifi c slope, it is found from southern California to Ecuador (Thomson 1997). In the US, Mountain Mullet has been recorded in Atlantic (North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida), Pacific (California), and Gulf of Mexico (Florida, Louisiana, and Texas) drainages (Hoehn 1998, Light et al. 1998, Marcy et al. 2005, Menhinick 1991, Pezold and Edwards 1983, Schlicht 1959, Suttkus 1956, Thomson 1997). In the southern US there are reports of Mountain Mullet from Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi (Matamores et al. 2009).
[Add references - all found in Matamores et al. 2009].
Native:Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It can be locally common. In an evaluation of sportsfishing potential in Puerto Rico streams, it was the species with highest abundance of the native species sampled (Kwak et al. 2007). The peak densities of mountain mullet occurred in the spring, ranging from 1,544 to 17,087 fish/ha (Kwak et al. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Mountain Mullet is commonly found in tropical freshwater systems with a preference for high-gradient streams with fast-moving waters (Carr and Goin 1955, Cruz 1987). It is considered a generalist feeder eating mainly filamentous algae and aquatic insects; it also consumes detritus, snails, plant material, mollusks, and small fishes (Aiken 1998, Cruz 1987, Loftus et al. 1984, Phillip 1993, Torres-Navarro and Lyons 1999).
In the tropics, the spawning season of Mountain Mullet appears to coincide with the local rainy season (Aiken 1998, Cruz 1987). However, juvenile Mountain Mullet have been found year round in the coastal lagoons of Costa Rica’s Pacific slope (Chicas 2001). Furthermore, in Honduras, juveniles smaller than 30 mm SL have been collected throughout the year in freshwater streams, suggesting that spawning may occur year round in some portions of the range (W.A. Matamoros, unpubl. data).
Researchers have differing opinions on the migratory habits of this species. Some authors believe Mountain Mullet is amphidromous (Erdman 1972), with spawning occurring in freshwater, eggs drifting to sea where they hatch, and larvae growing at sea before returning to freshwater as juveniles (McDowall 2007). Others (Anderson 1957, Cruz 1987, Phillip 1993) believe the species to be catadromous, with adults returning to sea to spawn. Further, some researchers discuss the possibility of mixed strategies (Marcy et al. 2005).
|Use and Trade:||Caught and consumed by local populations in some parts of central America. It may be caught as a sportsfish also.|
Mountain Mullet is an important part of the local fisheries in southern Mexico (Torres-Navarro and Lyons 1999) and Honduras (Cruz 1987).
It may be impacted by habitat degradation, pollution, and dams or other obstacles to migration (Matamoros et al. 2009).
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Agonostomus monticola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 November 2014.|
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