|Scientific Name:||Conus dictator|
|Species Authority:||Melvill, 1898|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Peters, H. & Veldsman, S.G.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Peters, H., Bohm, M. & Howarth, L.|
This species occurs from the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and Pakistan, and on to south east India and Sri Lanka. It also occurs off north Sumatra and the island of Socotra, Yemen. This species lives at depths usually below recreational scuba limits. It is unlikely that it is confronted by any threats at the present time. It has therefore been assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in a line from the Persian Gulf, down through the Gulf of Oman and Pakistan, and on to south east India and Sri Lanka. It also occurs in the waters off north Sumatra (Röckel et al. 1995) and off the island of Socotra, Yemen, which is off the Horn of Africa (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).
The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2 by a considerable margin.
Native:Bahrain; India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu); Indonesia (Sumatera); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Sri Lanka; United Arab Emirates; Yemen (Socotra)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western
|Lower depth limit (metres):||100|
|Upper depth limit (metres):||15|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information for this species. It was commonly dredged in Indian waters in the 1970s (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in depths of around 15-100 m. In shallower waters, this species can be found on coral sand. Adults of the species will grow to approx 48 mm although they will typically be less than this (Röckel et al. 1995). It is less abundant in shallow waters (which is the habitat it was originally described from), and is mostly known from deeper waters (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).|
|Use and Trade:||
In common with all Conus spp, shells of this species are traded for the collector market. There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed, however, this species is traded for prices typically in the medium to high range; availability: adequate (Rice 2007). Currently, prices are often lower, around $20. The identification of this species was debated for a long time, but is now clarified.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no known threats to this species at the present time. This is likely to be a result of its deepwater habitat. Dredging in Indian waters is very infrequent now compared to past levels of activity so this is not considered to be a major threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.|
|Citation:||Raybaudi-Massilia, G. 2013. Conus dictator. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192685A2141093. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T192685A2141093.en . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.|
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