Conus splendidulus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus splendidulus Sowerby i & ii, 1833
Common Name(s):
English Clay Cone
Conus anadema Tomlin (1937)
Conus fasciatus Kiener (1845)
Taxonomic Notes: C. fasciatus for which the new name given by Tomlin was anadema, is considered a valid sub-species from Somalia, Socotra and Horn of Africa (see Raybaudi & Rolan 1994 - check).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-10-27
Assessor(s): Raybaudi-Massilia, G.
Reviewer(s): Peters, H. & Veldsman, S.G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Peters, H., Bohm, M. & Howarth, L.

This species occurs in the Gulf of Aden which includes Djibouti, Eritrea, North Somalia and Yemen. This species is currently considered Data Deficient, since no specimen has been recorded in 20 years. Populations in shallow water might be threatened by effects of pollution and siltation, coastal development etc., but nothing is known about the current population status. If a continuing decline is determined in at least parts of its range (Yemen), then this species may need to be re-assessed as NT.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the Gulf of Aden which includes Djibouti, Eritrea, North Somalia and Yemen (Röckel et al. 1995).

The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.

Countries occurrence:
Djibouti; Eritrea; Somalia; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4000
Lower depth limit (metres):25
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information available for this species. The subspecies from Somalia is rare and occurs in deep water. The Yemen population occurs in more shallow waters and is consistently distinct from the other population. Overall, the species is never common and no specimens have been seen in around twenty years (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is known to occur at depths of 10 to 25 m in sand among coral reefs and also in mud and rubble (Yemen). It is found at deeper locations in Somalia, where it is dredged (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. 2011). Adults of the species will grow to approx 97 mm although they will typically be less than this (Röckel et al. 1995).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

In common with all Conus spp, shells of this species are traded for the collector market.  There are no quantitative data available on the number of shells removed, however, this species is traded for prices typically in the high range; availability: scarce (Rice 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Coasts within the Gulf of Aden are under similar threats to those being experienced in the entire Red Sea area. These being threats derived from urban developments, sewage discharges, shipping and associated spills and pollution. Untreated domestic and municipal wastes are dumped into the sea through port facilities. Other types of marine pollution resulting from agricultural growth and development may also be affecting coastal areas (UNEP 1997). These may be relevant threats for populations in shallower waters, less so for deeper water ones.

This species is very scarce in the shell collector market.  This could indicate lack of abundance in the wild but may also result from its distribution being in politically unstable areas. Overall, further data are needed in order to adequately assess the impacts of threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is restricted in its range and very scarce in the market and would benefit from further research into habitat and threats before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species. It is likely to benefit from the Red Sea's protected status which prohibits all collection.

Citation: Raybaudi-Massilia, G. 2013. Conus splendidulus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T192459A2098574. . Downloaded on 17 October 2017.
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