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Bungarus candidus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Elapidae

Scientific Name: Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Malayan Krait
Taxonomic Notes: Bungarus javanicus is considered to be a melanistic form of B. candidus (see Kuch and Mebs 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-08-31
Assessor(s): Wogan, G., Vogel, G., Grismer, L., Chan-Ard, T. & Nguyen, T.Q.
Reviewer(s): Bowles, P. & Cox, N.A.
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern due to its wide distribution. The species is heavily traded for food, traditional medicine and probably for skins in parts of its range, but it is not presently clear that this is impacting the global population, and national trade controls exist in Viet Nam. Further research into the impacts of exploitation may justify reassessing this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs from central Viet Nam through Thailand, southward to Bali, Indonesia (Smith 1943, Taylor 1965, David and Vogel 1996, Nguyen et al. 2009). Its presence in Myanmar and Singapore is unverified but likely. Fifty-year old records from Peninsular Malaysia have not been confirmed recently (L. Grismer pers. comm. August 2011), although the snake has been recorded from the offshore island Pulau Langkawi.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Cambodia; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No information is available on population trends. This nocturnal and secretive species is infrequently encountered. Although this snake is commonly harvested in parts of its range, especially in Viet Nam, no data is available on whether this is impacting the population and the species is not listed in Viet Nam's national Red Data Book (Dang et al. 2007).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in lowland and hill forests, and in plantations, up to 1,200 m elevation (David and Vogel 1996). The species is secretive, nocturnal, and feeds on snakes, lizards, and amphibians. It lays up to 10 eggs in a clutch (David and Vogel 1996).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is traded for medicinal purposes, including consumption in snake wine (Somaweera and Somaweera 2010). Exploitation is particularly extensive in Indochina, where the species is commonly found in traditional medicine (Q.T. Nguyen pers. comm. August 2011). In Viet Nam the species is protected by law to control levels of exploitation. Because of the size of this large species, its skin is likely to be used and traded across its range as is the case with other kraits, including B. fasciatus.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species may be at local risk from harvesting for medicinal purposes and food, particularly in Indochina. The scale of exploitation in other countries needs to be further studied.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is protected by law in Viet Nam by the Decree No 32/2006/ND-CP published in March 2006, which limits but does not prohibit commercial trade in this snake. Further research is needed to determine both whether harvesting pressures are impacting this snake throughout its range and whether local levels of exploitation, e.g. in Viet Nam, are sustainable.

Citation: Wogan, G., Vogel, G., Grismer, L., Chan-Ard, T. & Nguyen, T.Q. 2012. Bungarus candidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T192238A2059709. . Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
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