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Naja sputatrix

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA ELAPIDAE

Scientific Name: Naja sputatrix
Species Authority: Boie, 1827
Common Name(s):
English Equatorial Spitting Cobra, Indonesian Cobra
Taxonomic Notes: No taxonomic issues.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-09-01
Assessor(s): Iskandar, D., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F. & Lilley, R.
Reviewer(s): García, N. & Bowles, P.
Justification:
The species is assessed as Least Concern. However, near future studies (adaptive management) are warranted to assess the levels of trade in place at the current time and establish effective captive breeding facilities to prevent the laundering of wild specimens.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: N. sputatrix has been recorded from Indonesia in Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Padar, Rinca, Komodo, Flores, Adonara, Lomblen and Alor. It is not certain whether it occurs in Sumatra.
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is.)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is very common, especially in human made habitats such as rice fields and grassland, as well as in savanna.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This Indonesian species occurs on lowlands up to about 600 m. asl. It is frequently found in rice fields or savanna, but occasionally in secondary forest. It is known from open agro-ecosystems associated to human settlements. All known localities are rice fields or human made habitat, grassland, swamp, savanna and plantations, in the lowlands up to about 600 m. asl. (Boeadi et al. 1998, Auliya unpublished).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is intensively used in the skin trade, and also for its meat; traditional medicine uses the gall bladder, blood and heart. The species is still considered in trade lists under the name of Naja naja sputatrix. In Indonesia it is exported with both names. The most current export quota in 2011 is 450 specimens for the pet trade and 134,550 for the skin trade (CITES website). The majority of the trade occurs in Java, Indonesia. Between 2000 and 2009 , more than 1.5 million skin were in the trade market. There are many other properties exported in trade from the species (e.g., bodies, leather products, meat, skin pieces, venom, etc.) and it appears that for the export of these commodities trade documents are not issued to be recorded. There is a significant in-country trade that is also not licensed. No credible captive breeding facilities are established in Indonesia for this species (Auliya pers. comm. 2011). Between 2007 and 2009, Indonesia exported 88,392 kg of meat to China and Hong-Kong (CITES website).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Most specimens from the trade were collected from man made habitats and the in-trade does not seem to have declined after observations during multiple days (Mumpuni et al. 2002, Sugarjito et al. 1998). The extent to which these harvests have impacted the population over time is not known, however, some local traders have reported declining numbers of skins, and therefore there are concerns that these harvests are resulting in locally depleted numbers (Auliya unpublished). Buyers in Bali now import cobras for human consumption from Java (local trade) because these are no longer available in sufficient numbers from Bali. (Lilley pers comm. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No specific conservation measures have been applied to N. sputatrix although CITES regulates this species, which is listed on Appendix II. On the recommendation of the CITES Animals Committee in 2011 this species was included in the next phase of the Review of Significant Trade, the first stage in the process that could lead to a reevaluation of its trade status, aimed at establishing whether CITES needs to collect further information on levels of exploitation and trade management practices. Indonesia establishes an annual harvest and export quota. Studies must be conducted for this highly traded species. There is not adapted management of the trade of this species and therefore regular field studies need to be conducted.

Citation: Iskandar, D., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F. & Lilley, R. 2012. Naja sputatrix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.
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