|Scientific Name:||Hoplitis quinquespinosa (Friese, 1899)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kemp, J.R., Michez, D. & Nieto, A.|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Hoplitis quinquespinosa is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution and presumed large overall population.
|Range Description:||Hoplitis quinquespinosa is only known from Spain in Europe but its distribution extends through northern Africa and southwestern Asia (Müller 2013).|
Native:Spain (Spain (mainland))
The population size and trends of this species are not known.
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Hoplitis quinquespinosa possibly occurs in Mediterranean-type shrublands, although the habitat has not been described. It nests in excavated vertical burrow (c. 12 cm deep) in hard and horizontal soil with 22 brood cells closely grouped together at its end. The brood cells, which are not placed at the end of side burrows but open directly into the main burrow, are spirally arranged around the main burrow with their longitudinal axis being oriented horizontally to 45 degrees downwards. In contrast to other Pentadentosmia species, neither the main burrow nor the brood cells are lined with a contiguous layer of chewed leaves. Instead, the walls of both main burrow and brood cells appear to be constructed with a mixture of soil and chewed leaves. The cell cap (c. 2 mm thick) consists of two adjacent layers made of earth and small quantities of chewed leaves. This species is oligolectic, in that it prefers to forage upon a narrow range of flowering plant species, primarily on Reseda spp. and possibly other related genera of the Resedaceae (unpublished data, A. Müller pers. comm. 2014).
|Use and Trade:||There is no current exploitation that could represent a threat to the species as a whole.|
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are not known.|
The species is not listed in any National Red Lists or Red Data Books. It is unknown whether it occurs within any protected areas. Further research should be conducted to determine the population size, trends and threats to the species.
|Citation:||Lhomme, P. 2014. Hoplitis quinquespinosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T19198701A21154694.Downloaded on 23 February 2018.|
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