|Scientific Name:||Andrena gallica Schmiedeknecht, 1883|
Andrena gallica ssp. alpicola Bischoff, 1922
Andrena gallica ssp. fulvitegularis Bischoff, 1922
Andrena gallica ssp. iberica Bischoff 1922
Andrena gallica ssp. taurica Bischoff 1922
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Michez, D., Kemp, J.R., Nieto, A., Patiny, S., Radchenko, V. & Roberts, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Scheuchl, E. & Scott, J.A.|
European regional assessment: Near Threatened (NT)
Listed as Near Threatened because this species has disappeared from many countries and is in significant decline (but probably at a rate of 20-25 % over ten years), based on direct observation on the field and a decline on the area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and extent of the habitat due to anthropogenic activities such as mowing grass during the flowering of key plants, pesticides, and the ploughing of land of which there are nests of bees. Thus the species is close to qualifying as Vulnerable under Criterion A2ac.
Andrena gallica is a Palearctic species that is widely distributed, although rare, throughout Europe from Iberia to eastern European countries such as Ukraine and European Russia, and from Sweden to Italy in the south.
Outside of Europe, it has been found from the Caucasus to south Siberia to Baikal.
Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Denmark; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Lithuania; Moldova; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, European Russia, South European Russia); Slovakia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Switzerland; Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
Regionally extinct:Hungary; Sweden
In many regions of Europe, for which data are present, the populations of Andrena gallica have declined sharply in the last ten years. Based on direct observation in the field (V. Radchenko pers. obs. 2013), and the lack of recent data from much of the rest of its range, it is suspected that there has been a decline in the region of 20-25% in the last ten years. Moreover in some European countries this species has completely disappeared, such as in Sweden and Hungary (Linkowski et al. 2004, Jozan 2011), thus reducing the extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Andrena gallica occupies different biotopes from xeric to humid such as flood plain meadows, alpine meadows, xeric mountain slope, and forest glades. In the mountains, it is found at altitudes up to 1,500 m (Warncke 1966b). This species shows selectivity in the choice of sites for settlement in that it builds solitary nests in hard sandy soils or creates small aggregations. The nests of A. gallica are parasitized by Nomada italica and Nomada marshamella (Stöckhert 1933, Kocourek 1966). The species flies from April to the end of August. In the southern part of its distribution, it has two generations.
It is a polylectic species, in that it visits a large variety flowers of various plants such as Rosaceae, Ranunculaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Dipsacaceae, Lythraceae, Apiaceae, Fabaceae, Brassicaceae, Salicaceae, Geraniaceae, Liliaceae, and Valerianaceae species (Osytshnjuk 1977, Osytshnjuk et al. 2008).
|Generation Length (years):||1|
|Use and Trade:||
This species is not traded or exploited commercially, but is valued as a pollinator of different plants, including a variety of agricultural crops.
The main threat to this species is the sharp reduction in the number of natural habitats. These areas are exposed to damaging anthropogenic activities such as mowing grass during the flowering of key plants, the treatment of fields with pesticides, and the ploughing of land on which there are nests of bees.
Another possible reason for the decrease in this species could be due to the increased amount of rainfall, caused by global climate change as this species prefers to build nests in dry, sandy soils.
It is included in the following national or regional Red Lists or Red Data Books: Germany as Endangered (Westrich et al. 2008, 2011), and in Red Data List of Free State of Saxony as Regionally Extinct (Burger et al. 2004), in the Czech Republic as Critically Endangered (Farkač et al. 2005), in Sweden as Regionally Extinct (Linkowski et al. 2004), in Hungary as Regionally Extinct (Józan 2011).
Also this species included in some regional Red Data Books, for example, in Ryazan region of Russia and Volyn region of Ukraine.Now this species is found only in some nature reserves: the Doñana Biological Reserve in Spain (Melián et al. 2009), the Ukrainian Steppe Nature Reserve, and the Nature Reserve, Galich’ya Gora in Russia.
It is recommended to conserve suitable open grassland habitats, nesting sites in open, sandy soil and the forage plants of this species.
Further research is required to establish the current status of the species throughout its range and to identify the existing threats and trends.
|Citation:||Michez, D., Kemp, J.R., Nieto, A., Patiny, S., Radchenko, V. & Roberts, S. 2013. Andrena gallica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T19198564A43114079.Downloaded on 22 November 2017.|
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