|Scientific Name:||Lithobates yavapaiensis|
|Species Authority:||(Platz and Frost, 1984)|
Rana yavapaiensis Platz and Frost, 1984
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Georgina Santos-Barrera, Geoffrey Hammerson|
|Reviewer/s:||Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species ranges from western and central Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, in the USA, south to northern Sonora and northwestern Chihuahua, and south-central and southeastern California and adjacent Arizona, from San Felipe Creek to the Colorado River (Painter 1985, Jennings and Hayes 1994). It usually occurs below 1,000m asl, to 1,700m asl in central Arizona (Platz and Frost 1984, Stebbins 1985). It has apparently been extirpated in Imperial Valley, California, and along the lower Colorado River, Arizona-California, though it might be extant in some areas close to the Colorado River in Arizona (Clarkson and Rorabaugh 1989, Jennings and Hayes 1994). It has been replaced by the introduced R. berlandieri along the Colorado and Gila rivers, Arizona (Clarkson and Rorabaugh 1989). In Arizona, it is found in every county except Apache and Navajo with 57% of all localities occurring in Gila, Maricopa, and Yavapai counties (Sredl et al. 1997). It is believed to be extirpated from New Mexico (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1997).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In California, historical records are from 28 locations with the most recent observation in 1965. It has not been observed during recent general herpetological surveys in California and is believed to be extirpated (Jennings and Hayes 1994). In New Mexico, it is known from 14 historical locations. A 1995 survey of 72 potential locations in New Mexico, including six historical sites that had not been surveyed in the past 10 years, resulted in no observations. New Mexico populations are now believed to be extirpated or occurring in very low numbers (Jennings 1995, New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1997). In Arizona, the Natural Heritage Program recorded 302 populations with 90% believed to be extant (S. Schwartz pers. comm., 1998). An extensive 1991-1996 survey in Arizona resulted in the relocation of this species at 43 of the 115 historical localities surveyed and at 61 additional new sites (Sredl et al. 1997).
It has a widespread distribution and has a large number of occurrences. Abundance information has been collected only from a small area in New Mexico and is highly variable. Mark-recapture studies were conducted annually at six New Mexico sites from 1991-1996 resulting in highly variable population estimates among sites and annually within sites. Population estimates were determined using the Lincoln-Peterson method. Individuals were observed every year at only one of the six locations. The following are the ranges of annual population estimates: 1991 (four sites), 41-704; 1992 (four sites), 19-887; 1993 (two sites), 156-1806; 1994 (two sites), 134-863; 1995 (one site), 92; and 1996 (one site), 70. See Sredl et al. (1997) for more specific individual site information.
Populations are considered stable in central Arizona, but the remainder of the USA populations are declining or extirpated. Information is not available from Mexico. In California, the species has not been observed during any recent general herpetological surveys and is believed to be extirpated (Jennings and Hayes 1994). A 1995 survey in New Mexico, where it occurred as recently as 1985, indicates that previously viable populations are now extinct or numbers are very low (Jennings 1995). A 1991-1996 survey in Arizona indicated that populations were stable in central Arizona, dramatically declining in southeastern Arizona, and extirpated from southwestern Arizona (Arizona Game and Fish Department 1997, Sredl et al. 1997).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species preferably inhabits rocky streams in canyon habitats surrounded by conifer forests or ponds and stream pools, usually in areas of scrub desert. Eggs and larvae develop in quiet water.|
|Major Threat(s):||The greatest threats to this species are habitat alteration and fragmentation, and the introduction of non-native predatory and competitive fishes, crayfishes, and frogs (see Jennings and Hayes 1994, Sredl et al. 1997). Habitat alteration is the result of agricultural practices, livestock grazing, development, and reservoir construction (see Jennings and Hayes 1994). Damming, draining, and the diversion of water have fragmented formerly contiguous aquatic habitats. In many areas, fragmentation has been accentuated by introduced predatory fishes, crayfish, and bullfrogs. The species has been replaced by the introduced R. berlandieri along the Colorado and Gila rivers, Arizona (Clarkson and Rorabaugh 1989). These factors result in the blockage of potential dispersal corridors for recolonisation. Populations are also vulnerable to large-scale mortality on a frequent basis due to drought, disease, and sulphur toxicity (Sredl et al. 1997). Chytridiomycosis was confirmed in this species in 1992.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species occurs in and is being managed for on several state and federally managed lands in Arizona (Sredl et al. 1997). In Mexico it was listed as rare in 1995 (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1997), and is also listed by the Mexican government in the "Special Protection" (Pr) category. It is listed as endangered in California and New Mexico (Jennings and Hayes 1994). It has been bred in captivity at Phoenix Zoo.|
|Citation:||Georgina Santos-Barrera, Geoffrey Hammerson 2004. Lithobates yavapaiensis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 10 March 2014.|
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