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Paphiopedilum purpuratum 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Asparagales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Paphiopedilum purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein
Common Name(s):
English Purple Paphiopedilum
Synonym(s):
Cordula purpurata (Lindl.) Rolfe
Cypripedium purpuratum Lindl.
Cypripedium sinicum Hance ex Rchb.f.
Menephora bicolor Raf.
Paphiopedilum aestivum Z.J.Liu & J.Yong Zhang
Paphiopedilum purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein var. hainanense F.Y.Liu & Perner
Paphiopedilum sinicum (Hance ex Rchb.f.) Stein
Taxonomic Notes: Rare species, which populations commonly include very few scattered samples. Leaf tessellation varies from whitish or pale green to deep green. Rarely forms two-flowered inflorescence.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd; C1+2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-03-15
Assessor(s): Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L.
Reviewer(s): Fay, M.
Justification:

Global assessment: Critically Endangered (CR).

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is rare, uncommon and local with few fragmented subpopulations and a very restricted distribution in China and Viet Nam.

The population trend is decreasing. The abundance of the species has been significantly reduced during recent decades with a very high population decline due to many threats especially habitat destruction, logging, fires, deforestation, ruthless collection for horticultural purposes, regional and international trade, trampling, recreation, ecological disturbance, tourism and infrastructure development.

The population has declined by 90% over the last decade. It is projected to decline by 80-90% in the next three generations. The number of mature individuals is estimated to be less than 250, found in small fragmented subpopulations of less than 50 mature individuals.

Therefore, Paphiopedilum purpuratum is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is found in a few localities in northern Viet Nam (three localities in Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang provinces) and southern China. It extends from Hong Kong into adjacent areas of Guangdong province and it also reported from Hainan Island, south Fujian, south Guangxi and southeast Yunnan. Paphiopedilum purpuratum can be found between 100 and 1,500 m asl.

The extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated at 300,000 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated at 70 km2. There are five locations.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan); Hong Kong; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:70Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:300000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:5
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is rare and uncommon species with restricted distribution, fragmented subpopulations and few localities (three known localities in Viet Nam and a few in China). Most known subpopulations are declining, highly depleted and some are reported extinct, especially the subpopulations of Viet Nam. There are only few observed specimens in each known locality and normally does not form large subpopulations.

Abundance has been significantly reduced in recent decades with a high population reduction. The population density is low and the trend of the population is decreasing. The estimated number of mature individuals is less than 250. The population has declined by 90% over the last decade. It is projected to decline by 80-90% in the next three generations.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:249Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is a perennial rosulate herb. It grows in primary, mixed and semi-deciduous, broad leaved forests and thickets.

Paphiopedilum purpuratum prefers very humid, moist well-drained soils in humus, highly eroded crystalline limestone, rocky soils and steep limestone. The species prefers shaded habitats in tropical climates associated with mountains and it flowers from June to September (Guangxi and Yunnan), October to January (Guangdong, Haunan and Hong Kong) and from September to October in Viet Nam. Leaf tessellation varies from whitish or pale green to deep green. It rarely forms a two-flowered inflorescence.

It has a maximum generation length of eight years.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):7-8

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is a highly demanded ornamental plant and is extensively collected for commercial use for horticulture, domestic and international trade. Local people are engaged in collection of this plant in the wild for the commercial traders.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is sensitive to the environment and is typically associated with a specific set of habitat conditions, such as rocky high altitude, particular nutrient availability, steep places and shaded habitats.

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is under numerous threats including habitat fragmentation and degradation through the deterioration of the surrounding environments, deforestation, fires, logging, random cutting, soil erosion, the exploitation for horticultural purposes, ruthless collection for regional and international trade, trampling, recreation and ecological disturbance.

Paphiopedilum purpuratum is threatened more generally by climate change, drought, degradation of the habitat due mainly to tourism, leisure activities, urbanisation, infrastructure development, management activities, recreation activities with direct effects (e.g., destruction of plants) and indirect effects (e.g., alteration of habitat). In addition the intrinsic factors of the population which are considered a threat to the species are the limited distribution and low number of mature individuals.

(Averyanov et al. 2003, Averyanov 2008, Braem 1988, Braem et al. 1998, Braem and Chiron 2003, Cavestro 2001, Cribb 1987, efloras 2008, eMonocot 2013, Koopowitz 2008, Liu et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

All orchid species are included under Annex B of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

All Paphiopedilum species are listed on Appendix I of CITES.

However, the following actions are recommended to protect Paphiopedilum purpuratum:

- Field explorations are needed to find potential additional localities.

- Organization and appropriate management of protected areas.

Propagation and repatriation of plants into native habitats

- Cultivated specimens should be used in the trade and market supply instead of wild plants.

- Species based management and conservation is essential to ensure to protect the remaining limited number of individuals.

- Knowledge of the optimal growth conditions is required. Such information may help to develop effective ways to restore the natural habitat of the species

- Initiate long term community based conservation to protect the habitat and species.

- Protection of the habitat, especially from collection, trampling and deforestation.

- Fencing the vulnerable sites.

- Management of habitat to reduce competition for resources (i.e., light, water, nutrients).

 - Sympathetic management of isolated subpopulations.

- Monitoring programs are needed to track the status of existing subpopulations with respect to ongoing management practices.

- Learning about the mycorrhizal relationships of this species with the goal of establishing successful protocols for symbiotic ex situ propagation and cultivation.

- Further research on the life cycle and ecology of the species.

- Land protection and habitat diffuse management can be implemented to conserve habitat near or between occurrences.

- Raise public awareness.

- Protection of the living individuals of the species through legislation and legal protection which ban the species not to be picked or dug up.

- Ex situ conservation: Artificial propagation, re-introduction, seed collections.

- Monitoring and surveillance of the existing subpopulations and sites.

- Estimate the population size and study the dynamics. 


Citation: Rankou, H. & Averyanov, L. 2015. Paphiopedilum purpuratum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T191782A2002925. . Downloaded on 16 July 2018.
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