Juniperus indica var. indica


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Juniperus indica var. indica
Parent Species:
Common Name/s:
English Black Juniper
Juniperus wallichiana Hook.f. & Thomson ex E.Brandis

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-01-25
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Adams, R & Thomas, P.
With a very large extent of occurrence and occurring at high altitudes in the Himalayas, this variety is unlikely to become threatened with extinction in the near future. Degradation in Nepal from incense clipping has been observed, but it is unclear how this affects the global population.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Himalaya, E into high mountains of China. Bhutan; China: W Sichuan, S Xizang  [Tibet], NW Yunnan; India: Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Kashmir; Nepal; N Pakistan; Sikkim.
Bhutan; China (Sichuan, Tibet [or Xizang], Yunnan); India; Nepal; Pakistan
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Some subpopulations in Nepal may be in decline due to harvesting for incense. Locally common in at least parts of its range.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: From upper montane coniferous forest and woodland in pure stands, or with e.g. Abies, Pinus, Cupressus torulosa, or in Betula utilis subalpine woodland, to alpine heath and grassland and into the bare moraines and scree of the niveous zone. The altitudinal range is from 3,600 m to 4,800 m a.s.l. As an understorey shrub or tree in coniferous forest it is often accompanied by J. squamata, Rhododendron spp., Rosa and Cotoneaster. Above the tree line it can form juniper-rhododendron thickets, grow in Kobresia-Stipa turf with dwarfed alpine shrubs (e.g. Rhododendron, Salix, Juniperus squamata), or occur scattered on moraines and consolidated scree slopes of granite or gneiss or other metamorphic acidic rock, at the highest altitudes exclusively on S-facing slopes. The climate is high montane to alpine with a pronounced monsoon phase delivering heavy precipitation (much as snow) from May to October.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): No range wide threats are known although overgrazing may be a problem in some areas. In Nepal subpopulations are fragmented and exploited for incense and firewood. This also occurs in other parts of its range but the impact is uncertain.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Occurs in protected areas across its range, e.g. Sagarmatha National Park and Quomolangma, Shey-Phoksundo, Annapurna, Sagarmatha and Jigme Dorji Reserves.
Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Juniperus indica var. indica. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
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