|Scientific Name:||Pimephales promelas|
|Species Authority:||Rafinesque, 1820|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
|Range Description:||Throughout much of North America, from Alberta and Northwest Territories to Quebec and New Brunswick, south to Alabama, Texas, northern Mexico (Chihuahua), and New Mexico; introduced in Colorado River drainage (Arizona and New Mexico), Mobile Bay drainage (Alabama), and elsewhere, through use as bait fish; most common in Great Plains, generally absent from mountains, absent on Atlantic Slope south of Delaware River; common over much of range (Page and Burr 1991).|
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.
Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Lakes, ponds, headwaters, creeks, small rivers, ditches, reservoirs, residual pools of intermittent streams (where sometimes very abundant); usually in sluggish or still water with abundant floating and submerged vegetation; tolerant of high temperature, turbidity, low oxygen, and high salinity. Adapts well to pond culture. Eggs are laid on underside of object in quiet water in nest guarded by male. Larvae collected in shoreline drift in upper Colorado River (where introduced).|
|Major Threat(s):||Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.|
|Conservation Actions:||Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Pimephales promelas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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