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Chlorurus oedema

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Chlorurus oedema
Species Authority: (Snyder, 1909)
Common Name(s):
English Knothead Parrotfish, Uniform Humphead Parrotfish
Synonym(s):
Callyodon oedema Snyder, 1909
Chlorurus oedemus (Snyder, 1909)
Scarus oedema (Snyder, 1909)
Taxonomic Notes: This species is a complex of three similar species C. cyanescens, C. oedema and C. rhakoura. All have a characteristic protruberance on the head. These three species are confused in field records.

Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-09-16
Assessor(s): Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.
Reviewer(s): McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.
Justification:
This species is relatively rare and is therefore not heavily exploited. It is found in marine protected areas in parts of its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
History:
2010 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from the Ryukyu Islands in the north, southwards to Sulawesi and Halmahera, Indonesia. It was recently recorded from Manus Island and East Timor. Records from the Indian Ocean and North West Australia may be C. cyanescens and C. rhakoura respectively.
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia; Japan; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Taiwan, Province of China; Timor-Leste
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for this species. It is a relatively rare species over its entire range (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is a small Chlorurus not exceeding 45 cm (TL). It is found solitary or in small groups on reef fronts (Bellwood 2001). It is found in a variety of reef habitats and can occupy inshore reef areas (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is captured for food. It was found in Mei Gong market in Pangushan, China (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations.   Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus oedema. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2014.
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