|Scientific Name:||Sparisoma viride|
|Species Authority:||(Bonnaterre, 1788)|
Scarus catesby Lacepede, 1802
Scarus coccineus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Scarus melanotis Bleeker, 1862
Scarus viridis Bonnaterre, 1788
Sparisoma albigaardi (Bloch, 1791)
Sparus aureoruber Lacepede, 1802
Sparus catesby Lacepede, 1802
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widely distributed in the western North Atlantic, and is very common. Even though it is caught in the multispecies fisheries and targeted in many places for its relatively large size, there are no indications of global population declines. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The species is known from Bermuda and Florida (USA) to Venezuela.|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common throughout its range (L. Rocha pers comm. 2009).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is reef and seagrass associated from 1-50 m. It inhabits coral reefs with clear water. It feeds mainly on soft algae, but has been observed to graze on live corals. It produces a significant amount of sediment through bioerosion using its strong beak-like jaws and constantly re-growing teeth (Gygi 1975). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. It is found solitary or small in small groups. Young may be found in seagrass beds and algae-rich areas of the reef.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is caught in commercial and artisanal fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species. Even though fisheries on these and other medium to large-sized parrotfish species in the Caribbean has been steadily increasing, there is no apparent global decline in population sizes (Friedlander and Beets 2008). There are however, severe population declines in reefs close to densily populated areas around Haiti and Jamaica (Hawkins and Roberts 2004).
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. Fisheries for parrotfishes are permanently closed in Bermuda.|
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Sparisoma viride. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 April 2015.|
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