|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus perspicillatus|
|Species Authority:||(Steindachner, 1879)|
Scarus ahula Jenkins, 1899
Scarus borborus Jordan & Evermann, 1903
Scarus kraussi Jordan, 1925
Scarus leucostigma Jordan, Evermann & Tanaka, 1927
Scarus miniatus Jenkins, 1901
Scarus perspicillatus Steindachner, 1879
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Myers, R., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
Although this species is heavily fished in about 30% of its range, it is now protected by the establishment of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument where resident fish species are fully protected. Moreover much of the habitat is remote and protected from illegal fishing.
Although an endemic, the range size is large compared with most other endemic parrotfishes. It may be argued that an endemic species that is heavily fished over 30% (the main Hawaiian Islands) of its range should be classified as Near Threatened. However, partly in response to problems with the increasing Hawaiian Island reef fishery, the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument was established. This marine monument now covers 60% of the geographic range of this species. This monument plus the presence of the species at the isolated Johnston Atoll confirms that adequate management protection is now in place. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species is known only from the Hawaiian Islands, Northwest Hawaiian Island chain and Johnston Atoll.|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Johnston I.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest
|Lower depth limit (metres):||71|
|Upper depth limit (metres):||1|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is moderately common over the Northwest Hawaiian Island chain.
Biomass was lower in the main Hawaiian chain where it is exposed to heavy recreational and commercial fishing by a factor of 14. In the main Hawaiian Islands biomass was recorded at 0.01 tonnes per hectare, Northwest Hawaiian Islands Marine Park at 0.14 tonnes per hectare (Friedlander and DeMartini 2002).
As a large parrotfish it achieves high abundances in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Park ranging from 100 to 215 individuals per hectare in Pearl and Hermes, Kure and Midway reefs (DeMartiniet al. 2005). Abundance estimates in the French Frigate Shoals recorded 71 indivuduals per hectare (DeMartiniet al. 2002).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This excavating species is found solitary or in small schools. It inhabits reef fronts to 71 m depth. The major period of ovarian development is from March to June; sexual maturity occurs at 20 cm (Hawaii Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit Final Report 2009).
This species forms a hybrid with Chlorurus spilurus (Randall 2005).
|Use and Trade:||This species is a heavily fished food and recreational species in the main Hawaiian Island group.|
This species is heavily fished within the main Hawaiian Island group, representing about 30% of its range.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||This species is protected in over ~70% of its geographical range by the newly established Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. It is also protected in Johnston Atoll where there is limited access and no commercial fishing and in marine reserves within the main Hawaiian Islands.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Myers, R., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus perspicillatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190718A17794587. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.|
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