|Scientific Name:||Scarus hoefleri (Steindachner, 1881)|
Callyodon hoefleri (Steindachneri, 1881)
Pseudoscarus hoefleri Steindachner, 1881
|Taxonomic Notes:||Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widely distributed in the tropical eastern Atlantic, and is common around oceanic islands. Even though it is caught in multispecies fisheries and targeted in many places for its relatively large size, there are no indications of global population declines. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is known from Mauritania to Congo, including Cape Verde and Sao Tome archipelagos (Wirtz et al. 2007).|
Native:Benin; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Congo; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mauritania; Nigeria; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common in Cape Verde and Sao Tome (L. Rocha pers comm. 2009).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits rocky reefs and seagrass associated from 3-30m. It feeds mainly on algae. It is found solitary or in small groups (L. Rocha pers obs. 2009).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is captured in commercial and artisanal fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps with some marine protected in parts of its range.|
|Citation:||Rocha, L.A., Choat, J.H., Clements, K.D., Russell, B., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Scarus hoefleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T190703A17789666.Downloaded on 23 March 2018.|
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