|Scientific Name:||Chlorurus enneacanthus|
|Species Authority:||(Lacepède, 1802)|
Scarus capitaneus Cuvier, 1829
Scarus enneacanthus Lacepède, 1802
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is the sister species of C. frontalis in the western Pacific (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2010).
Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The genera Chlororus and Scarus are two distinct monophyletic lineages (Smith et al. 2008).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species is widely distributed and is not specifically targeted in the Indian Ocean. It is abundant at remote reef systems including Cocos-Keeling and occurs in a number of marine protected areas throughout its range. It is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Indian Ocean from East Africa (Kenya to Mozambique) and islands of southwestern Indian Ocean to East Andaman Sea (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It was recorded from Halmahera (Green and Muljadi 2009), however this record needs to be verified.|
Native:British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Kenya; Maldives; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mozambique; Réunion; Seychelles; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Abundance estimates of this species at Cocos Keeling recorded ~5-10 individuals per 300 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009) but it is rare at other sites. It has also been observed in Chagos, Maldives and Mauritius but always rare (Randall and Bruce 1983).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a reef front and reef crest excavating species that occurs to 30 m depth. It has been observed to 60 cm (TL) in Christmas Island.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is captured for food in local subsistence fisheries.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Carpenter, K.E., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Russell, B., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Chlorurus enneacanthus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.|
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