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Cetoscarus bicolor

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Cetoscarus bicolor
Species Authority: (Rüppell, 1829)
Common Name(s):
English Bicolour Parrotfish, Red-speckled Parrotfish, Two-colored Parrotfish, Bumphead Parrotfish
French Perroquet à Points Rouges, Perroquet Bicolore, Poisson-perroquet Baleine
Spanish Loro de Manchas Rojas
Synonym(s):
Bolbometopon bicolor (Rüppell, 1829)
Callyodon scriptus Gronow, 1854
Pseudoscarus nigripinnis Günther, 1867
Scarus bicolor Rüppell, 1829
Scarus ophthalmistius Herre, 1933
Scarus pulchellus Rüppell, 1835
Scarus roseiceps Valenciennes, 1840
Taxonomic Notes: Westneat and Alfaro (2005) recognize the Scarini as a tribe within the family Labridae. The Red Sea population will be recognized as Cetoscarus bicolor (Ruppell 1829) with the type locality in Jedda (Randall and Bruce 1983). While the Indian and Pacific Ocean species will be Cetoscarus ocellatus (Valenciennes 1840) with the type locality in the Caroline Islands in the Central Pacific (Parenti and Randall 2000). Molecular evidence now confirms that there is separation between the Pacific and Indian Ocean populations (Ma, unpublished thesis).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-09-17
Assessor(s): Choat, J.H., Russell, B., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.
Reviewer(s): McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.
Justification:
This species is found in the Red Sea and is abundant for a large parrotfish. Although it is a component of subsistence fisheries, it is found in marine reserves in parts of its range. It is listed as Least Concern.
History:
2010 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the Red Sea.
Countries:
Native:
Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Israel; Jordan; Saudi Arabia; Sudan; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – western
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species has a restricted distribution but is reasonably common over coral reefs within the Red Sea. In the northern Red Sea, it is found on outer reef slopes with a mean density of 2.2 per 1000 m2 (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a large parrotfish at 45-50 cm for terminal phase adults. This species occurs in small haremic groups in reef fronts and passes. It inhabits rich coral areas of seaward and lagoon reefs (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). There is no data available on demography and reproductive biology.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is captured for food by local communities especially on the east coast of the Red Sea. Juveniles are collected for the aquarium trade (G. Allen pers comm. 2009). It is a component of artisanal fisheries and was observed frequently in the Jedda market (J.H. Choat pers comm. 2009).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known for this species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations.   Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Choat, J.H., Russell, B., Clements, K.D., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Cetoscarus bicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.
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