|Scientific Name:||Odax cyanoallix|
|Species Authority:||Ayling & Paxton, 1983|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Clements et al. (2004) recognize the Odacini as a tribe within the family Labridae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Russell, B., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||McIlwain, J. & Craig, M.T.|
This species has a restricted distribution (to about 25 km of the New Zealand coastline) but is common and there are no apparent threats. There is no development taking place at present time in the Three King's Island. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Based on its narrow range of distribution it is recommended that further monitoring be done on this species.
|Range Description:||This species is confined to a 25 km coastline around the Three Kings Islands, north-west of the northern tip of New Zealand. Although some individuals have also been recorded at Cape Reinga and isolated specimens have been seen on the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand at Cape Brett and at the Poor Knights Islands (Brook 2002).|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are few data available on abundance, but Choat and Ayling (1987) give mean densities of 8.2 ± 1.4 SE per 500 m2 in Southeast Bay, Great King Island. This species is abundant only at the Three Kings Islands.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species inhabits shallow kelp forest, 1-20 m depth. It is exclusively herbivorous as adults, feeding on laminarian and fucoid macroalgae (Zemke-White and Clements 2004). Appears to prefer the laminarian Ecklonia radiata, but when this is displaced into deeper water by ENSO events, it will eat the fucoids Landsburgia quercifolia and the endemic Sargassum johnsonii. Epiphytic rhodophytes can also comprise up to 20% of their diet. Juveniles are probably omnivorous (like O. pullus).
Maximum age 7 years. VBGF parameters of Linf and K are 325.243 and 0.492, respectively. Sexually dichromatic protogynous hermaphrodite. Females reproductively mature at about 200 mm (Ayling and Paxton 1983). Age and size of smallest male 2 years and 265 mm (FL), respectively. Ratio of terminal phase to initial phase fish very low, varying from 1:48 to 1:164 (Ayling and Paxton 1983).
|Use and Trade:||Bluefinned Butterfish is a minor component of recreational fisheries in New Zealand.|
There are no major threats known for this species.
Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
|Conservation Actions:||In the northern region of New Zealand, there is a daily recreational limit of 20 combined finfish, including Bluefinned Butterfish.|
|Citation:||Russell, B., Clements, K.D., Choat, J.H., Rocha, L.A., Myers, R., Lazuardi, M.E., Muljadi, A., Pardede, S. & Rahardjo, P. 2012. Odax cyanoallix. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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