Bothus lunatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Pleuronectiformes Bothidae

Scientific Name: Bothus lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Plate Fish, Flounder, Peacock Flounder, Solefish
French Rambou Lune
Spanish Arreves, Eslanguao Pancho, Eslanguao Redondo, Eslenguao, Lenguado, Lenguado Lunado, Lenguado Ocelado, Lenguado Real, Medio Peje, Miracielo, Tapaculo
Bothus lunulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bothus lunulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platophrys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Platophrys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pleuronectes argus Bloch, 1783
Pleuronectes argus Bloch, 1783
Pleuronectes lunatus Linnaeus, 1758
Pleuronectes lunatus Linnaeus, 1758
Rhomboidichthys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Rhomboidichthys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Romboidichthys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Romboidichthys lunatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2012-08-21
Assessor(s): Munroe, T.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Contributor(s): Adeofe, T.A., Camara, Y.H., Camara, K., Cissoko, K., Djiman, R., de Morais, L., Sagna, A., Mbye, E., Sidibé, A, Sylla, M. & Tous, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Polidoro, B. & Defex, T.
This widely distributed species occurs on sandy substrata in a variety of nearshore habitats including mangrove, reef, and seagrass beds. There are no known major threats, though it is taken in artisanal and recreational fisheries. Therefore, it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is distributed in the tropical Atlantic. In the western Atlantic, it is known from northeastern Florida and southwards along coastal Florida; Bermuda; the Bahamas; in the Gulf of Mexico from the Florida Keys, the Flower Garden Banks, and from Tuxpan, Mexico along the Yucatan Peninsula, and northwestern Cuba; throughout the Caribbean Sea (including the Aves Islands and Serrana Islands); and along the South American coast to northeastern Brazil, also at Trinidade Island (R. Robertson pers. comm. 2012, Simon et al. 2013). In the eastern Atlantic, it is known from the Gulf of Guinea (Alfonso et al. 1999) and Ascension Island (Edwards and Glass 1989, Wirtz et al. 2014).
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil (Trindade); Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Equatorial Guinea; French Guiana; Gabon; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Ascension); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


Few surveys conducted in the western Atlantic include this species, and when it appears, it is only present in moderate numbers (Lavett Smith and Tyler 1973, Manickchand-Heileman 1994).

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This demersal species occurs on sandy bottoms near coral or rocky reefs, as well as in seagrass beds and mangrove habitats from the shore to 65 m depth. It feeds primarily on small fishes, but also consumes crustaceans and octopuses (Munroe 2002). It reaches up to 45 cm in length, but is common around 35 cm. Mating groups consist of one male and several females with spawning occurring at dusk. The mating process consists of the male and female swimming closely and rising off the surface. The male and female both dart back to the substrate quickly after the mating process is completed (Konstantinou and Shen 1995, Munroe 2002). Its maximum age is up to 10 years (Van der Geest and Langervoord 1995).
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is caught mainly on hook-and-line, with spear guns, beach nets or traps, as well as handheld fish spears. It is also caught incidentally in artisanal fisheries throughout its range. It is generally marketed fresh and its flesh is considered good-eating. Bothus lunatus is not taken in sufficient quantities to be considered a commercially important species (Munroe 2002). It also appears in the marine aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The level at which it is exploited is not considered to be a major threat. It has been identified as a prey item of the invasive Lionfish; however, this is not considered to impact its population on a global level (Valdez-Moreno et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There are no species-specific conservation measures in place. 

Citation: Munroe, T. 2015. Bothus lunatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T190102A16510777. . Downloaded on 23 July 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided