|Scientific Name:||Marstonia ogmoraphe|
|Species Authority:||(Thompson, 1977)|
Pyrgulopsis ogmoraphe (Thompson, 1977)
Pyrgulopsis ogmorhaphe (Thompson, 1977)
|Taxonomic Notes:||The genus Marstonia formerly was relegated to synonymy with Pyrgulopsis by Hershler and Thompson (1987). But Thompson and Hershler (2002) later re-evaluated eastern North American species and assigned to Pyrgulopsis and recognized them as distinct species of the genus Marstonia (J. Cordiero pers. comm. 2010).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bohm, M., Collen, B. & Seddon, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A., Offord, S., Duncan, C. & Richman, N.|
Marstonia ogmoraphe has been assessed as Least Concern. Although this snail has a highly limited range as its occurrence is in only two spring outflows (area of occupancy is less than 4 km2), there have been no signs of decline, the populations appear stable and there are no immediate threats. However if any new threats were introduced it would potentially threatened this species with extinction due to its limited range.Future surveys of populations is essential in order to monitor the status of population trends. It is recommended that future research and conservation management strategies are implemented in order to protect this species.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to two spring runs flowing from caves in the Sequatichie River system (Tennessee River drainage) in Marion County, Tennessee (USFWS 1995, Burch 1989, Hershler 1994). It therefore occurs in two locations with an estimated area of occupancy of between 0.4-4 km2 and an extent of occurrence of less than 100 km2.|
Native:United States (Tennessee)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Only two occurrences are known: Owen Spring and Blue Hole Spring in Marion County, Tennessee (USFWS 1995, Lewis 2005). The species has never been found outside of the two known areas, so no decline is noted and the two populations have never been lost (USFWS 1995).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This snail is found only in spring runs flowing out of caves. It is typically found on soft mud, very rarely on sand, rock detrius or hard clay, and almost always in areas with imperceptible current. It may be naturally restricted to the upper portion of these two spring runs, as it has not been found elsewhere (USFWS 1995).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
No declines have been documented. Future potential threats include the degradation of water quality which is the most significant potential threat. Siltation and other pollutants contributed by coal mining, poor land use practices, and waste discharge have the potential to negatively impact the species. Another potential concern is the introduction of nonnative aquatic weeds or animals (e.g. zebra mussel) (USFWS 1995).
This species only has a one year life cycle, therefore it is subject to sudden extinction should anything happen to impede reproduction at the two sites where it occurs. The existing populations occupy very limited areas and are therefore vulnerable to random extirpation (USFWS 1995).
This species was listed as federally endangered in the U.S. (USFWS 1994) and a recovery plan was created with the following objectives (USFWS 1995 : (1) protect the existing populations and essential habitat, (2) isolate threats to the species, conduct research necessary for the species' management, and implement management where needed, (3) develop artificial holding and propagation techniques and, if feasible, establish captive populations, (4) develop and implement cryogenic techniques to preserve the species' genetic material, (5) develop and implement a program to monitor royal snail population levels and the water and habitat conditions of each of the spring runs, (6) annually assess the overall success of the recovery program and recommend action.
Further research on the population status and the threats of the species is recommended, as well as regular monitoring, in order to detect any population declines at an early stage. Site protection, and adherence to federal protection and the recovery plan are suggested in order to keep these populations healthy.
|Citation:||Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K. 2012. Marstonia ogmoraphe. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 September 2014.|
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