|Scientific Name:||Eupera cubensis|
|Species Authority:||(Prime, 1865)|
Sphaerium cubanum Prime, 1870
Sphaerium cubense Prime, 1865
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Böhm, M. & Collen, B.|
|Contributor(s):||Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Thorley, J., Herdson, R., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.|
Eupera cubensis has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is widely distributed across the north of South America, Central America, the Caribbean and the southeastern United States and is known from a range of habitat types. There are no known major threats to this species and it appears to be relatively tolerant to pesticide pollution.
|Range Description:||This species is widely distributed throughout northern South America, Central America, the Caribbean and the southeastern United States including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois (introduced), Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Kentucky and Mississippi (Heard 1965, Mackie and Huggins 1976, Branson 1981, NatureServe 2009, Sneen et al. 2009). Northern South America is assumed to encompass Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and possibly Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. Central America is assumed to encompass Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The Caribbean is assumed to encompass Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands and United States Virgin Islands.
In Cuba, this species has been found in Villa Clara, and in various localities of the island like Havana City and Habana province, Cienfuegos, Holguin, and Santiago (NatureServe 2009).
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cayman Islands; Colombia (Colombia (mainland), Colombian Caribbean Is.); Costa Rica (Cocos I., Costa Rica (mainland)); Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras (Honduran Caribbean Is., Honduras (mainland)); Jamaica; Martinique; Montserrat; Nicaragua (Nicaragua (mainland), Nicaraguan Caribbean Is.); Panama; Puerto Rico (Navassa I., Puerto Rico (main island)); Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois - Introduced, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas); Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Aves I., Venezuela (mainland)); Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is insufficient population data available for this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in rivers and streams of all sizes and appears to show a preference for stable substrates associated with root systems of the Water Willow, Justicia americana (Heard 1965, Branson 1981). It often attaches to plant roots, aquatic vegetation, decaying wood and even rusty beer cans (Heard 1965, Branson 1981). Individuals can live for up to three years and produce broods of up to 64 larvae per year (Mackie and Huggins 1976). This species is also known to be tolerant to relatively high concentrations of the pesticides, eldrin and toxaphene (Mackie and Huggins 1976).|
|Major Threat(s):||Freshwater systems in the United States are threatened by habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, chemical and organic pollution, and the spread of exotic species (Allan and Flecker 1993). It is not known what impact these processes may be having on this species, but given its widespread distribution, it is likely that any threats are acting on a localized scale only and therefore do not represent major threats to the global population of this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species has been given a NatureServe Global Heritage Status Rank of G5 - secure (NatureServe 2009). There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, given the widespread distribution of this species, it is likely that it occurs within a number of protected areas.|
|Citation:||Cummings, K. 2011. Eupera cubensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.|
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