Pungitius pungitius


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Pungitius pungitius
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Ninespine Stickleback, Nine-spined Stickleback

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2012-03-01
Assessor(s): NatureServe
Reviewer(s): Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.
Contributor(s): Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
2008 Least Concern
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Arctic and Atlantic drainages across Canada and Alaska and south to New Jersey; Pacific coast of Alaska; Great Lakes basin; Eurasia (Page and Burr 1991). North American and Palearctic populations were regarded as specifically distinct by Haglund et al. (1992).
Belarus; Belgium; Canada; China; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greenland; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation (Kuril Is.); Sweden; United Kingdom; United States
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Arctic Sea; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – northwest; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – northwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable or slowly declining.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Cool quiet waters of ponds, lakes, estuaries, and streams; usually in shallow vegetated areas, sometimes in open water over sand. In lakes, may occupy deep water in winter, shallows in summer. Marine populations occur near shore. Spawns in fresh water; estuarine populations move into creeks and streams to spawn. Eggs laid in nest made by male among rocks or plants.
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.

Citation: NatureServe 2013. Pungitius pungitius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.
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