|Scientific Name:||Pungitius pungitius|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Coastal areas of northern Europe, from Netherlands to northern Russia, including southern Norway and Baltic basin. Widespread inland in eastern Scandinavia. In north eastern Europe in rivers of White Sea and Barents Sea from Onega to Kara, extends eastward to Siberia and Japan, but it remains to be demonstrated that East Asian populations are conspecific with European ones.|
Native:Belarus; China; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Germany; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation; Sweden; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Small freshwater streams and ponds, with dense aquatic vegetation. Enters brackish water along shores of Baltic and Barents Seas, rarely along North Sea shore.
Individuals born in early spring may mature in 3 months and spawn the same year. Territorial during spawning season, in March-September in central Europe, June-July in Arctic areas. Males build a tube-shaped nest anchored on aquatic vegetation or to the bottom, with a separate entrance and exit. The nest is made of pieces of plants or filamentous algae. Males guard nest from spawning until larvae swim away a few weeks later. Eggs hatch in 6-7 days. Feeds predominantly on aquatic invertebrates.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Pungitius pungitius. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
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