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Notolabrus fucicola

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Notolabrus fucicola
Species Authority: (Richardson, 1840)
Common Name(s):
English Banded parrotfish, Banded wrasse, Blue wrasse, Kelpie, Purple parrotfish, Purple wrasse, Southern wrasse, Winter bream, Yellow-saddled wrasse
Synonym(s):
Labrichthys fucicola (Richardson, 1840)
Labrichthys fucicola (Richardson, 1840)
Labrus fucicola Richardson, 1840
Labrus fucicola Richardson, 1840
Pseudolabrus fucicola (Richardson, 1840)
Pseudolabrus fucicola (Richardson, 1840)
Pseudolabrus pittensis Waite, 1910
Pseudolabrus pittensis Waite, 1910
Taxonomic Notes: For taxonomic treatment see Russell (1988).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-06-12
Assessor(s): Russell, B. & Pollard, D.
Reviewer(s): Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This is a widely distributed species, common throughout its range. A large species, long-lived which is highly fecund. Although fished commercially in Tasmania and Victoria, the fishery is relatively well-managed. Elsewhere, this species is not fished commercially. The life history of this species brings concerns that fishing pressure, if increased, will cause declines in the population over significant parts of its range in the future. Currently, this species is listed as Least Concern. It should be reassessed in four years.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known in Australia from southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and eastern South Australia. Throughout New Zealand, including Three Kings Is, Stewart I. and Snares Is. (Francis 1996).
Countries:
Native:
Australia; New Zealand
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – southwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common throughout its range. Populations are thought to be curently stable, however there are some concerns that fishing pressure, if continued at current levels, may cause populations to decline in the future (B. Russell pers. comm. 2008).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: A large species, to about 365 mm SL. It is common on rocky reefs in depths to about 90 m (Graham 1938). Spawning occurs during the same period in New Zealand and Australia from about August to December (Barrett 1995a, Denny and Schiel 2002, Harwood and Lokman 2006). Spawning in southern New Zealand occurs once each lunar cycle during the spawning season, resulting in four batches of eggs each year around the time of the full moon (Harwood and Lokman 2006). Annual fecundity in southern New Zealand fish ranged between 298,000 (± 139,600) and 447,000 (± 209 400) eggs/kg body weight (Harwood and Lokman 2006).

Sexually dichromatic, monandric and secondary gonochorists (Barrett 1995, Denny and Schiel 2002). The sex of purple wrasse appears to be genetically based and is determined before sexual maturity is reached (Barrett 1995a, Denny and Schiel 2002).

Early life history stages described by Welsford et al. (2004). Males and females attain maturity at around 15 cm TL. Maximum age in Tasmania is reported as about 20 years (Barrett 1995a, Ewing et al. 2003) and in Victoria 16 years (Smith et al. 2003). The relationship between fork length and age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth function (L∞ = 368 mm, K = 0.116 and t0 = -1.87 for males and L∞ = 385.7 mm, K = 0.109 and t0 = -1.96 for females) (Ewing et al. 2003).

This species is site attached, but, males may range over at least 1,700 m2 of reef (Barrett 1995b).

Hybrid specimens of this species and both N. celidotus and N. inscriptus have been reported (Ayling 1980, Russell 1988). Food items consists of crabs, hermit crabs, limpets and gastropod molluscs (Russell 1983, 1988).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is fished recreationally and commercially.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Major theats are fishing (domestic live fish trade) in Tasmania and Victoria. Taken together with bluethroat wrasse, Notolabrus tetricus, mainly by traps and to a lesser degree by handlines. There is an apparent market preference for bluethroat wrasse, but purple wrasse are more robust for live handling (Ziegler et al. 2008).

Live fish fishery developed in 1990’s in Tasmania and Victoria. Catches are not separately reported, but total catches of purple (N. fucicola) and bluethroat (N. tetricus) wrasses in Tasmania dramatically increased from 70 t (1991/92) to 100 t (1992/93). Since 1995/96, wrasse catches were relatively stable and consistently over 70 t. Over the last five years, they have generally increased and reached 108 t in 2006/07, largely due to higher handline catches (Ziegler et al. 2008). In Victoria, catches peaked in 1998 at about 90 t, and subsequently declined to about 50 t. Effort also has declined since 1998, but overall catch rates are being maintained in Victoria (Smith et al. 2003).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species has a legal minimum length (LML) and the commercial fishery is capped at 51 licenses in Victoria. The minimum legal size is 30 cm with no upper limit, and 58 fishing licences have been issued in Tasmania. This species distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

However, research is needed on population numbers and with regard to fisheries, trends should also be monitored.

Citation: Russell, B. & Pollard, D. 2010. Notolabrus fucicola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.
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