|Scientific Name:||Symphodus melanocercus|
|Species Authority:||(Risso, 1810)|
Crenilabrus melanocercus (Risso, 1810)
Lutjanus melanocercus Risso, 1810
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Craig, M.T., Nieto, A., García, M. & Allen, D.J.|
This species is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, and there are no known major threats to its populations. Although there is no specific population information available for this species, its population is thought to be stable. This species is therefore listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. It is present in the Sea of Marmara (Golani et al. 2006), but it is absent from the eastern Levant (D. Golani pers. comm. 2008), the northern and eastern Adriatic, the northern and western Aegean, Cyprus, and the Black Sea. Its lower depth limit is found around 30 metres, while its upper depth limit is one metre below sea level (Louisy 2005).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Egypt; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Libya; Malta; Monaco; Morocco; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The abundance of this species is variable throughout the Mediterranean Sea. For instance, while it is common in Italy, it is uncommon in Turkey. Although there is no specific population information available for this species, its population is thought to be stable (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in rocky areas and seagrass beds. It feeds on worms, small crustaceans (e.g., amphipods and copepods), bryozoans and hydrozoans (Quignard and Pras 1986). It also acts as a cleaner of ectoparasites from other fishes. Spawning takes place in spring and early summer, when the male guards a territory within which the females lay their eggs (Golani et al. 2006). The maximum size of this species is 14 cm (TL) (Louisy 2005). It is not a migrant species and usually congregatory (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2014).|
|Use and Trade:||Although it is very small, this species may be sold as food when caught in artisanal fisheries, where it is probably mainly used in fish soup.|
There are no major threats known for this species, although it may be sold as food when caught in artisanal fisheries. Its shallow inshore rocky reef and seagrass habitats may also be threatened by habitat degradation, pollution and the invasive introduced tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia. (Verlaque and Fritayre 1994, Villele and Verlaque 1995).
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps with several marine protected areas within its range. However, there is a need for conservation actions, regarding resource and habitat protection of seagrass and rocky algal reef habitats, where control of the invasive species Caulerpa taxifolia needs to be undertaken as well, enabling this way restoration of the habitats. Creation of awareness must be carried out in order to prevent water pollution, habitat degradation and control of the invasive alga species. To this matter, policies and regulations need to be strengthened.
More research is also needed regarding the species' population size, distribution and trends, harvest, use and livelihoods, life history and threats. Monitoring is needed as well regarding population, harvest and habitat trends.
|Citation:||Pollard, D. 2014. Symphodus melanocercus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|
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