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Thalassoma trilobatum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Thalassoma trilobatum
Species Authority: (Lacepède, 1801)
Common Name(s):
English Christmas wrasse, Green-barred wrasse, Green-blocked wrasse, Ladder wrasse, Parrotfish
French Girelle de Noël, Marar
Spanish Doncella navideña
Synonym(s):
Labrus fuscus Lacepède, 1801
Labrus fuscus Lacepède, 1801
Labrus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801
Labrus trilobatus Lacepède, 1801
Thalassoma fuscum (Lacepède, 1801)
Thalassoma fuscum (Lacepède, 1801)
Thalassoma fuscus (Lacepède, 1801)
Thalassoma fuscus (Lacepède, 1801)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-03-07
Assessor(s): Cabanban, A. & Pollard, D.
Reviewer(s): Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is very widespread throughout much of the Indo-Pacific region. Although there are some localized threats to its populations from overfishing and marine pollution, it is protected in a number of marine parks throughout parts of its wide distribution. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread and occurs throughout much of the Indo-West central Pacific region (Allen and Adrim 2003). It is found from East Africa in the western Indian Ocean to the Pitcairn Islands in the east, the Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan) in the north (Senou et al. 2007), and Rapa Island in the south Pacific Ocean.

This species was recorded from Bali, Komodo, Togean and Banggai Islands and Pulau Weh, with an Indonesian distribution from Papua to Sumatra (Allen and Adrim 2003). It is also known from the Spratly Islands (Nguyen and Nguyen 2006). It was recorded in Malaysia (Anon 1987), Indonesia and the Philippines (Myers 1991).
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Pitcairn; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – southeast; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is rare based on reports from Indonesia (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001) and it was only found in two out of 19 sites surveyed in Banda Flores, Indonesia (Mous 2002). In the Philippines, this species is only found at a few locations and is considered relatively uncommon (V. Hilomen pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is generally found inshore (Randall 1985), over shallow exposed reef flats, usually with rock-base and mixed coral and algae (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001, Mundy 2005). It also occurs on surge-swept reef flats, reef margins, and clear rocky shorelines, but may venture into deeper waters up to 10 m depth (Randall 1985). It is benthopelagic (Mundy 2005). Habitats include seagrass beds and coral reefs in the Spratly Islands (Nguyen and Nguyen 2006).

The primary phase of this wrasse is almost indistinguishable from that of T. purpureum. The head of the male of T. trilobatum is plain brown to orange or shaded with blue. The female has a more spotted and shorter head which lacks the distinct 'V' on the snout that shows clearly on the female of T. purpureum (Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001). The initial phase has a dark diagonal red line below the front of the eye (Westneat 2001).

This species feeds on crustaceans (especially crabs), molluscs, and ophiuroids (brittle stars) (Randall 1985). Diet at recruit/juvenile stage is mainly zoobenthos and smaller nekton (Hobson 1974).The larval duration is 78.3 (s.d. +/- 12.3) days, range is 60-99 (Victor 1986).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is commercially important in the marine aquarium fish trade. It is only of minor importance in artisanal and subsistence fisheries in parts of its range.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats to this species. Localized threats may include overfishing and habitat destruction from pollution and blast-fishing in some parts of its range in SE Asia (Hodgson 1999, Burke et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Cabanban, A. & Pollard, D. 2010. Thalassoma trilobatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 July 2014.
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