|Scientific Name:||Labrus viridis Linnaeus, 1758|
Labrus prasostictes Pallas, 1814
Labrus viridis ssp. prasostictes Pallas, 1814
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2014. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 27 August 2014. Available at: http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. (Accessed: 27 August 2014).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4ad (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H. & Pollard, D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Allen, D.J. & Kemp, J.R.|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
This species is widespread in the Mediterranean, although it is now less common in some areas. Its population has suffered serious declines in the northwestern Mediterranean due to spearfishing for sport and food. There have also been severe declines in other parts of its range (e.g., in Tunisia). Habitat degradation may also be a major threat to this species.
There have been local population declines of 50–80% in at least a third of its range in the western Mediterranean over the past 15 years. There is no information on current declines in the eastern portion of its range even though fishing is a threat throughout its range, however conservation measures are in place for the species in both Turkey and Croatia. Without further implementation of conservation measures, this trend in decline is predicted to continue into the future and throughout the eastern parts of the species range. Overall decline is therefore expected to be at least 30% over three generation lengths (26 years, based on an estimated generation length of 8.5 years). This species is therefore listed as Vulnerable (A4ad).
|Range Description:||In the European region, this species is present in the eastern Atlantic along the coast of Portugal, and in the Mediterranean Sea it is present throughout most of the area, including Cyprus (Golani et al. 2006), although it has not been recorded from Israel (Golani et al. 2006), Lebanon or Syria (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). This species is also found in the western Black Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). In the eastern Atlantic, this species is present from Portugal to northern Morocco.|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Gibraltar; Greece (East Aegean Is., Greece (mainland), Kriti); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Libya; Malta; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland), Spanish North African Territories); Tunisia; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia, Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Population:||In the European region, this is a widespread but now relatively uncommon species. In the north western part of the Mediterranean Sea the population is continuing to decline, and the situation in the rest of the area is unknown (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). Declines in the numbers of large specimens have occurred over the past 10 to 20 years due to spearfishing in Italy (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008), and most likely also in France and Spain. The population decline in France has been around 80%, and in Tunisia around 50% (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008). However, although this species may now be less commonly found in the western Mediterranean Sea, it is not known whether similar declines may have also occurred in other parts of the Mediterranean Sea (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).|
Based on overall declines of 50-80% in at least a third of its range in the western Mediterranean, overall population declines since at least the 1990s are inferred to be more than 30% and are predicted to continue into the future and in the eastern portion of its range.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in seagrass beds and around rocky reefs, particularly algal-covered rocks. It is generally solitary or found living in pairs, but it may also be found living in small groups (Golani et al. 2006).|
It feeds mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. It displays very distinct sexual dimorphism, and is probably a protogynous hermaphrodite. The adhesive demersal eggs are laid in vegetated habitats (Golani et al. 2006).
This species is similar in demography with Notolbarus fucicola which has a generation length of about 7.5 years based on age at fist maturity of 2.5 years in southern New Zealand (H. Choat and D. Pollard pers comm. 2009). The generation length for this species is estimated to be approximately 8.5 years based on a longevity of 20 years and age of first maturity of three years.
|Generation Length (years):||8.5|
|Use and Trade:||This species is found in artisanal fisheries and taken in recreational fisheries and is taken by hook and spear. It is unknown the extent to which artisinal fisheries impact this species.|
This species is caught in local artisanal fisheries in Italy and Tunisia, and probably elsewhere within its distribution. Spearfishing in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea is also a major threat, and there are some concerns about the spread of this sport throughout the whole Mediterranean Sea.
Habitat degradation, and more specifically seagrass bed reduction, is also a threat to this species (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
|Conservation Actions:||The conservation actions for this species are in place in parts of its range (e.g., Croatia and Turkey). Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range, including eleven Natura 2000 sites in Italy and Spain (EUNIS 2014). The regulation of spearfishing of this species is recommended. Further research should also be conducted to determine the population trends, harvest, use, livelihoods and threats of this species in the western Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere in its range. Monitoring of the populations and levels of harvest are required.|
|Citation:||Craig, M.T., Choat, J.H. & Pollard, D. 2015. Labrus viridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T187654A44919501.Downloaded on 28 May 2018.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|