|Scientific Name:||Labroides pectoralis|
|Species Authority:||Randall & Springer, 1975|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Shea, S. & Liu, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is common in many parts of its range throughout the central west Pacific and east Indian Oceans. Although it is intensively collected for the aquarium trade, it is not thought to be contributing to widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern. More reseach is needed on sustainble harvest levels and the impact of collection on this species.
|Range Description:||This species is found in the west Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean, including Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Island to the Line and Pitcairn Group of Islands, north to the Bonin Islands, and south to Rowley Shoals and the Great Barrier Reef (Myers 1991, Allen 2000, Parenti and Randall 2000).|
Native:Australia; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Tonga; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common in at least parts of its range. There is no other information available on the abundance of L. pectoralis. It is the most frequently observed species in Tutuila and Swains Island, Samoa (Brainard 2004), while in Micronesia, it is reported to be the smallest and least common cleaner wrasse (Myers 1991).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species inhabits coral-rich areas of seaward, clear lagoon reefs (Lieske and Myers 1994, Allen 2000) and outer reefs (Kuiter 2002) at depths of 2 to 28 m (Myers 1991).
It is distinguished by the large black spot at lower edge of pectoral fin-base (Allen 2000, Kuiter 2002). It has been observed to “clean” parasites from other fishes (Randall and Springer 1975, Allen 2000). It is reported that the combination of colour and dance-like movement of L. pectoralis is an advertisement to other fishes, including predators, for “cleaning” services (Kuiter 2002). “Cleaning” included removal of parasite, dead tissue from wounds, food scraps from teeth or gills. Juveniles were observed to be territorial, working singly along reef walls, while adults work in pair and specifically at particular caves which are known as “cleaning stations” (Myers 1991, Kuiter 2002).
The mean plantktonic larval duration of L. pectoralis was 26.8 + / - 4.2 days and the highest larval duration was recorded to be 31 days in Palau (Victor 1986).
|Use and Trade:||This species is heavily targeted for the aquarium trade, especially for its cleaning behaviour (Kuwamura 1976). In Queensland, it is exported at a price of AUD $ 12 (Ryan and Clarke 2005). It can also be found in the ornamental trade inTaiwan (Shao 2008).|
There are no major threats known for this species, although it is targeted for the aquarium trade and there are occuring coral habitat degradation in parts of its range.
Overfishing, destructive fishing practices and pollution from the land have been reported within the area of highest coral reef diversity, such as the Philippines and Indonesia (Tun et al. 2004) and might cause habitat alteration or even loss. Such habitat alteration or degradation has been shown to influence the fish community (Öhman et al. 1997) and population depletions. Thus, habitat destruction might constitue as a main threat since most of this species habitat is in high coral cover areas.
The marine ornamental trade is an expanding industry and there is a threat of overcollection of the target species since most of them are taken from the wild (Ochavillo and Hodgson 2006). However, the data for the aquarium trade on is unregulated and with very limited documentation. There is no information available on the numbers that are being collected, location of extractions and monitoring on the trade.
There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.
It is worth mentioning that marine parks do not necessary imply as no take zones, for instance fishing and animal collections are allowed in the Sinub Island (Jenkins 2002). Given the intensive collection of this species for the aquarium trade, more research is need on the local and global impact of collection, as well as on the implementation of sustainable harvest and trade measures.
|Citation:||Shea, S. & Liu, M. 2010. Labroides pectoralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 January 2015.|
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