|Scientific Name:||Pteropus rufus|
|Species Authority:||É. Geoffroy, 1803|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2acd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Andriafidison, D, Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Rabearivelo, A., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable based on the loss of over 30% of its population over the last 20 years. This can be attributed to the increased level of hunting particularly with the introduction of shotguns and continued loss of its preferred roosting habitats.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Madagascar (Simmons 2005). It is one of the most widespread bat species on the island and appears to only be absent from the highly populated central highlands (MacKinnon et al. 2003). The highest density of roost sites is in coastal regions, especially from Morombe in the south-west to Antsiranana in the north (MacKinnon et al. 2003).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Roosts are conspicuous and noisy but the bats are often tightly clustered making abundance estimates at the larger sites difficult. MacKinnon et al. (2003) reported that colony size ranged from 10 to 5,000 animals with a median of 400. They found that nationally 17.5% of 154 roosts had been abandoned in the last ten years and desertion rates were much higher (70%) in the central highlands. The estimated national population size in 2000 was 300,000 (MacKinnon et al. 2003).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It roosts in a variety of different tree species where the bats hang on the outermost branches (MacKinnon et al. 2003; Jenkins et al. 2007a; Long and Racey 2007). Roosts are very rare inside intact forest and are usually found in forest fragments, small islands or mangroves (MacKinnon et al. 2003; Jenkins et al. 2007a; Rakotoarivelo and Randrianandriananina 2007). Occasionally, Eucalyptus plantations are also used (Jenkins et al. 2007a). The majority of roosts are in small areas of relatively degraded vegetation with a few large trees. Roosting bats are easily disturbed by people and cattle that venture near the roost and colonies readily take flight (MacKinnon et al. 2003). Once disturbed the bats may move to an alternative roost site in the vicinity and it appears that each colony requires more than one roost site as a response to disturbance but also maybe to shifting patterns of food availability (Jenkins et al. 2007a). This species can survive in heavily modified landscapes through feeding on a mixture of native and introduced plants (Raheriaisena 2005; Jenkins et al. 2007a; Long and Racey 2007). It is known to travel at least 17 km a night between roosting and foraging areas (Long 2002) and may actually regularly travel much further than this.
The diet consists predominantly of fruit juices which are squeezed from fruit in the mouth. Large quantities of seeds are accidentally ingested during feeding and are later dispersed at other foraging sites, during flight or at the roost. There is some evidence that seeds that have passed through the digestive tract of P. rufus incur a fitness advantage through increased germination success (Racey et al. in press). Other plants parts are also consumed, including flowers, nectar and leaves. In the south, nectar from introduced plants is an important dietary component throughout the year (Long and Racey 2007). Some plants have evolved to attract nocturnal mammals like bats as pollinators and P. rufus feeds non-destructively on the nectar of two threatened baobab species (Baum 1995; Andriafidison et al. 2006). Because of its ability to travel long distances and its capability as a seed disperser and pollinato,r P. rufus is widely believed to be a key species in fragmented forest ecosystems (Bollen and Van Elsacker 2002; Bollen et al. 2004).
|Major Threat(s):||There are numerous threats to this species. It is listed as a game species under Malagasy law and can be legally hunted between May and August (Durbin 2007). Only the few roosts that are located in protected areas therefore receive some protection (Racey et al. in press). Pteropus rufus is hunted for food across Madagascar (MacKinnon et al. 2003; Rakotondravony 2006; Rakotonandrasana and Goodman 2007; Racey et al. in press) where it is an important subsistence food but also of commercial importance. Although quantitative data on the supply of P. rufus for food and the impact of this harvest on colonies/populations is lacking, there is some evidence that the offtake is locally unsustainable (Racey et al. in press). Hunting occurs at roost sites and where the bats forage, especially when they feed on trees in villages (Jenkins and Racey in press). There is evidence that P. rufus from Ile Sainte Marie is hunted commercially and frozen shipments are sent to the mainland port of Toamasina (Rakotonandrasana and Goodman 2007). The conversion of the forest used by roosting bats into agriculture is another threat to P. rufus and results in the permanent loss of suitable trees which in many cases have been used for decades. Pteropus rufus feeds on a number of cultivated fruits that have a high economic value in rural Madagascar and is often subjected to persecution.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is listed on CITES Appendix II and is a game species under Malagasy law (Durbin 2007) but neither of these provide any practical in situ conservation measures (Racey et al. in press). There are a few roosts in protected areas, notably Parc National Kirindy-Mité, Parc National de Masoala, Parc National de Mananara-nord (MacKinnon et al. 2003) and Berenty Private Reserve (Long 2002), but many of the existing parks and reserves appear to be without roosting colonies (e.g. Goodman 1996, 1999; Alonso et al. 2002; Goodman et al. 2005; Schmid and Alonso 2005). The ongoing process to triple the surface of protected areas in Madagascar is providing an unprecedented opportunity to include traditional roosts in the new conservation sites. There is also significant scope for local institutions to conserve roosts and this is already occurring in some parts of Madagascar where the bats use sacred forests (Jenkins et al. 2007b) or where communities have created social contracts to protect the bats (Jenkins et al. 2007a).|
|Citation:||Andriafidison, D, Cardiff, S.G., Goodman, S.M., Hutson, A.M., Jenkins, R.K.B., Kofoky, A.F., Rabearivelo, A., Racey, P.A., Ranivo, J., Ratrimomanarivo, F.H. & Razafimanahaka, H.J. 2008. Pteropus rufus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 March 2015.|
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