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Thalassoma hardwicke

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Thalassoma hardwicke
Species Authority: (Bennett, 1830)
Common Name(s):
English Parrotfish, Six-banded wrasse, Sixbar wrasse
French Girelle paon de Hardwicke, Girelle taches d'encre, Tamarin
Synonym(s):
Halichoeres iris Seale 1910
Halichoeres iris Seale 1910
Julis dorsalis Quoy & Gaimard 1834
Julis dorsalis Quoy & Gaimard 1834
Julis erythropterus Valenciennes 1839
Julis erythropterus Valenciennes 1839
Julis prostigma Kuhl & van Hasselt 1839
Julis prostigma Kuhl & van Hasselt 1839
Julis schwanenfeldii Bleeker, 1853
Julis schwanenfeldii Bleeker, 1853
Julis semifasciatus Valenciennes 1839
Julis semifasciatus Valenciennes 1839
Julis urostigma Bleeker 1853
Julis urostigma Bleeker 1853
Labrus pulcherrimus Forster 1839
Labrus pulcherrimus Forster 1839
Labrus quindecimaculeatus Lacepède 1801
Labrus quindecimaculeatus Lacepède 1801
Sparus hardwicke Bennett, 1830
Sparus hardwicke Bennett, 1830
Thalassoma hardwickei (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma hardwickei (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma hardwicki (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma hardwicki (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma hardwickii (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma hardwickii (Bennett, 1830)
Thalassoma schwanefeldi (Bleeker, 1853)
Thalassoma schwanefeldi (Bleeker, 1853)
Thalassoma schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1853)
Thalassoma schwanenfeldii (Bleeker, 1853)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-06-12
Assessor(s): Shea, S., Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y.
Reviewer(s): Craig, M.T. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and is common in many parts of its range. It is collected for the aquarium trade and closely associated with several hard coral species and coral reef habitat is in decline in parts of its range. However, there are no known major threats to this species. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and occurs from east Africa to the Line and Tuamoto Islands and from Japan to Lord Howe and Austral Islands (Myers 1991), including Thailand, Taiwan, Pratas and Spratley Islands (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is common in many parts of its range.

It is the most common labrid on Moorea, French Polynesia (Galzin 1987). A total of 6,090 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 3-20 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).

In Fiji, a total of 803 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 4-17 cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).

In Tonga, a total of 809 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 5-25cm TL (M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).

In New Caledonia, a total of 3,712 individuals were counted in various UVC surveys with body sizes of 3-23 cm TL. In 9 stations, a total of 20 individuals were caught with total body weight of 417 g(M. Kulbicki pers. comm. 2008).

In Marshall Islands, it occurred on most shallow reefs, but not abundant (Colin and Bell 1991). It is also a common reef fish in Solomon Island (Allen 2006), the Barakau Village and Papua New Guinea (Raga 2006)

It is the one of the top twentieth most common species of piscivorous fish at Lizard Island (14° 40’ S 145° 28’ E), Australia (Stewart and Beukers 2000).

In Kimbe Bay of Papua New Guinea, it was found to be one of the top fifteenth most abundant species with a total abundance of 3231 individuals and a mean density of 1.55 individuals per 100 m2 (Srinivasan and Jones 2006). It is also the dominant fish species in Trou aux Biches and Troud’ Eau Douce, Mauritius (Ministry of Agro Industry and Fisheries and Albion Fisheries Research Centre 2004).

In Micronesia, it is moderately common in clear water areas of mixed coral, rubble and sand, particularly along upper edges of protected reef slopes (Myers 1991).

Large numbers were found in the upper lagoon of the Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve (Kospartov et al. 2006).

In Hong Kong, it is rare, only one individual was seen in area of coral at 3 m depth (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).

8 individuals were observed in the Maumere, Indonesia through an underwater visual census survey (Kulbicki undated).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits coral reefs (Allen 2000), shallow lagoon and seaward reefs, slopes and along drop-offs to depths of one to 15 m (Myers 1991, Kuiter and Tonozuka 2001), but may be found deeper.

Bodies of terminal phase individuals have six vertical black bars which are progressively shorter posteriorly, the first black bar passing beneath pectoral fins to abdomen, whilst the last bar is a saddle-liked spot on caudal peduncle (Westneat 2001) and broad pink bands radiating from eye (Sadovy and Cornish 2000, Kuiter 2006). Males and females differ slightly in colour although males are gaudier (Myers 1991). Initial phase is light green in colour with six wedge-shaped, slightly diagonal, dark bars dorsally on body (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).

Adults are diurnally active foraging over large (> 1000 m2) home ranges (Shima 1999a). It feeds on a variety of preys including fish eggs (eggs of Stegastes ngricans) (Shima and Osenberg 2003), benthic and planktonic crustaceans, small fishes, foraminiferans (Sano et al. 1984) and fish larvae (Dascyllus flavicausus) (Holbrook et al. 2003)

The mean duration of the planktonic larval stage was approximately 47 +/-8 days and the maximum recorded duration was 63 days (Victor 1986). It was found to settle on live coral habitat during the early benthic life history (Shima 1999) and settlement occurred during discrete lunar periods (Shima and Osenberg 2003). In Moorea Island, French Polynesia, Dufour et al. (1996) found that settlement occurred over five consecutive nights surrounding new moons between January and June. It was observed to settle at 35 mm in length (1999). It settles directly to patch reefs composed of live coral habitats or algal turf and newly settled individuals remain relatively inactive in algal turf or within branching corals for one to three days while developing juvenile pigmentation patterns (Shima 2001). In addition, juveniles remain site-attached for approximately four to six months (Shima 1999a).

Shima (1999, 2001, 2001a) demonstrated that density dependent mortality occurred shortly after settlement to coral communities. And strength of the density dependence mortality was found to be heterogeneous in space and time and was correlated with coral community attributes (Shima 1999, 2001, Shima and Osenberg 2003, Shima et al. 2005).

It has been reported to be diandric in Japan (Sadovy and Cornish 2000). During courtship, the terminal phase males had a dark spot on the center of the caudal fin which was absent on the initial phase females. The female ascent rapidly about three to four m when ready to spawn and the terminal phase male swam above her, rapidly fluttering pectoral and caudal fins. Spawning activities were observed in the morning after high tide in May at Marshall Islands (Colin and Bell 1991).

Aggregation spawning was documented at Heron Island (Robertson and Choat 1974) and waters adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Russell 2001). However, such behaviour has rarely been study.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is captured for aquarium trade in the Great Barrier Reef (Ryan and Clarke 2005), Reunion Island (Mulochau and Durville 2005), Taiwan (Shao 2008), Indonesia and Philippines (MAC 2004). The price range is from AUD $ 6-12 based on size (Ryan and Clarke 2005).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major threats known to this species. It is collected for the aquarium trade, but is not heavily targeted. Coral reef loss and habitat destruction may contribute to localized declines in some parts of its range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range.

While many marine parks have been introduced within the geographic distribution range of this species, for example in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Philippines (Tun et al. 2004), most of these marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered to be poorly managed or legislation is poorly enforced due to the lack of expertise, resource and effective co-ordination. For instance, some of the fish sanctuaries in the Philippines are only managed and enforced by the resort management (Tubod fish sanctuary) or local communities (White et al. 2002). As the efficacy of any legislation depends entirely upon its enforcement (Claydon 2004), the majority of these MPAs might not be able to provide sufficient protection (Licuanan and Gomez 2000, Chou et al. 2002).

Citation: Shea, S., Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y. 2010. Thalassoma hardwicke. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 July 2014.
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