|Scientific Name:||Pteropus pselaphon|
|Species Authority:||Lay, 1829|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii); C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ishii, N. & Maeda, K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because its extent of occurrence is less than 100 km², it occurs on only a few isolated islands, and because there is continuing decline in the quality of its habitat due to deforestation. The number of mature individuals is estimated to be less than 250 (total population size is estimated to be less than 300 individuals) with no subpopulations expected to have more than 50 mature individuals.
|Range Description:||This species is known only from the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, with records from Chichi-jima, Haha-jima, Kita-Iwo-jima, Iwo and Minami-Iwo-jima (Abe, et al. 2005).|
Native:Japan (Kazan-retto, Ogasawara-shoto)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
On Chichi-jima, the species was considered extinct during the 1970s, but they were rediscovered in 1986, and have been slowly increasing.
In March 2006 it was estimated that 100-150 individuals live on Chichi-jima and less than 50 individuals on Haha-jima. The islands of Kita-iwo-jima, Minami-iwo-jima, and Iwo-jima are very hard to access, so there is not enough data for population estimates. In 2001, the survey on Kita-iwo-jima directly observed 25 individuals and it was estimated that in total no more than 50 individuals live on this island. The last survey on Minami-Iwo-jima was conducted in 1982, and the population was estimated to be no more than 100 individuals (Ishii, 1982). On Iwo-jima, there are photos of this species on the island taken in 2004, although no survey on population size was conducted. The population size appears to be
very small because of the low frequency of observational records. Conducting surveys on Iwo-jima is very hard, because of the topography and because it is a military base. Based on the above information, it is estimated that the population size is 300 individuals or less (Masako Izawa pers. comm.).
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in forest habitats. They feed in orchards on the northern two islands, and are known to cause crop damage.|
The main threats to the species are deforestation, disturbance at roost sites by tourists and construction activities on the two northernmost islands, and accidental mortality in nets placed around trees to prevent damage to fruit (Ministry of the Environment, 2002). Feral cats and dogs may also be a threat.
The islands had been occupied by the United States from the end of the Second World War until 1968, during which time the bats were hunted for export.
|Conservation Actions:||This species was designated as a Natural Monument in 1969 under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties and capture without permission (including hunting) is prohibited. Minami-Iwo and Kita-Iwo are protected islands and they have no human inhabitants. There is a military base on Iwo. A National Wildlife Protection Area that includes the species' habitat was established in 1980. This species is listed as Critically Endangered (CR) on the Japanese Red List (2007) . It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.|
|Citation:||Ishii, N. & Maeda, K. 2008. Pteropus pselaphon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 July 2015.|
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