|Scientific Name:||Bodianus scrofa|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1839)|
Cossyphus scrofa (Valenciennes, 1839)
Crenilabrus caninus Lowe, 1839
Diastodon scrofa (Valenciennes, 1839)
Labrus scrofa Valenciennes, 1839
Lepidaplois scrofa (Valenciennes, 1839)
Pseudolepidaplois pfaffi Bauchot & Blanc, 1961
Pseudolepidaplois scrofa (Valenciennes, 1839)
Trochocopus scrofa (Valenciennes, 1839)
|Taxonomic Notes:||For taxonomic treatment see Gomon (2006).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Russell, B., Afonso, P. & Pollard, D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Liu, M. & Sadovy, Y.|
This species has a restricted distribution in the eastern Atlantic, and is only known from five island groups with an area of occupancy estimated to be less than 2,000 km2. It is fished throughout its range, and there have been significant localized population declines in many parts of its range (such as in Madeira and the Canary Islands). This species is listed as Vulnerable.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary and Cape Verde Islands (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). Based on 100 m bathymetry, the area of occupancy of this species is estimated to be less than 2,000 km2.|
Native:Cape Verde; Portugal (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens); Spain (Canary Is.)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There has a been a population decline throughout its range.
In the Azores it is common on rocky reefs from 15-50 m depth all across the archipelago and offshore shallow banks with suitable habitat, but naturally occurs in scarce numbers , especially in the northernmost islands (Afonso 2002).
In Madeira (Ribeiro et al. 2005, Ribeiro et al. 2006) and the Canaries (Falcón et al. 1996) populations are less numerous, or even absent locally, although in the recent past they have supported local multispecies fisheries. The very limited information available also points to the rarity of this species in the Cape Verdes (Monteiro et al. 2008), its southern distribution limit (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This is a large species with males reaching at least 70 cm TL in the Azores (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). A maximum length of 80 cm has been recorded (Hanquet 2005).
It inhabits rocky reefs of island shores and offshore reefs and shallow banks in depths from 20-100 m. It prefers areas of high bottom relief and strong hydrodynamic conditions.
It feeds mainly on macro invertebrates (sea urchins, gastropods, etc.). It is a sequential protogynous hermaphrodite (all males result from sex-changing females at 45-65 cm TL). It shows marked haremic territorial system, typically one male to two to three females (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). Supposedly a pelagic spawner, it does not build a nest or provide any parental care. Juveniles occur isolated below 30 m, sheltering within reef crevices and holes.
|Use and Trade:||This species is taken almost exclusively on hook-and-line, rarely in nets (Westneat in press). It is a component in minor fisheries. It is caught mostly by hook and line from moderately deep waters with rocky bottom, or freediving on shallower reefs. It is sold fresh in markets.|
This species is threatened by overfishing throughout its restricted range. Sensitivity to recreational fishing is also of major concern throughout its range due to increasing boatfishing and freediving.
In the Canary Islands it was recently considered commercially threatened due to overexploitation, mostly in the 1990s (Brito and Morales 1998). In Madeira it is rare or absent, most probably due to overfishing and habitat degradation of the coastal communities in past decades. In the Azores, numbers have been reduced in fished areas in recent years, particularly those of larger (male) individuals (Afonso 2002, Afonso et al. 2006).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. However, its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. The efficacy of these marine protected areas is not known.|
|Citation:||Russell, B., Afonso, P. & Pollard, D. 2010. Bodianus scrofa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 August 2015.|
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