Pteropus ocularis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteropus ocularis Peters, 1867
Common Name(s):
English Seram Flying Fox, Ceram Fruit Bat, Moluccan Spectacled Flying Fox, Seram Flying-fox
Spanish Zorro Volador De Las Isla Ceram

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-18
Assessor(s): Tsang, S.M.
Reviewer(s): Mildenstein, T.
Contributor(s): Helgen, K. & Salas, L.
The Seram Flying Fox is assessed as Vulnerable under criterion A3c, because a decline of >30% is suspected to occur over the next three generations (24 years, Pacifici et al. 2013) due to deforestation, mining, oil exploration, and land conversion. The species is very rare and it currently occurs on only two islands, as well as likely having fewer than 10,000 mature individuals due to hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is recorded in the Maluku Islands from Buru, Ambon and Seram islands in Indonesia. There were four localities on three islands historically, and now it is probably absent from Ambon.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:2
Upper elevation limit (metres):900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species has only been collected seven times. The most recent collection was in 2014, in a recent survey of West and Central Seram (Tsang et al. 2015). The solitary roosting behaviour and rarity of this species makes population estimation difficult, though it is suspected that populations are declining due to degrading habitat quality and hunting by the local people.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species probably occurs in old growth forest, but was recorded in a recent survey from a mangrove forest (Tsang et al. 2015). This species has not been recorded in colonial aggregates like many other Pteropus species, and there are no historical records of colonies (Tsang et al. 2015), making it one of the few Pteropus species that are solitary. Data on their roosting and feeding ecologies are sorely lacking due to the rarity of the species.
Generation Length (years):8

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by hunting and deforestation for logging and expanding agriculture. Unregulated and illegal mining in Buru will not only increase the rate of habitat loss, and large amounts of mercury from gold mining has likely seeped into the water supply. This species is occasionally hunted, though it is encountered rather infrequently.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES. It is found in Manusela National Park, though the forests there are threated by illegal logging, and deforestations throughout Seram has resulted in a loss of almost half of the total forest coverage. A protected area needs to be established on Buru to protect the habitat of this species.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Citation: Tsang, S.M. 2016. Pteropus ocularis (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18745A115145424. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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