|Scientific Name:||Labrus mixtus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
Labrus bimaculatus Linnaeus, 1758
Labrus carneus Ascanius, 1772
Labrus coeruleus Ascanius, 1772
Labrus coquus Gmelin, 1789
Labrus larvatus Lowe, 1852
Labrus lineatus Bonnaterre, 1788
Labrus luvarus Rafinesque, 1810
Labrus ossifagus Linnaeus, 1758
Labrus quadrimaculatus Risso, 1827
Labrus trimaculatus Bonnaterre, 1788
Labrus variegatus Gmelin, 1789
Labrus varius Linnaeus, 1758
Labrus vetula Bloch, 1792
Sparus formosus Shaw, 1790
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species was previously known as Labrus bimaculatus, e.g. in Golani et al. 2006 (D. Pollard pers. comm.. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pollard, D. & Afonso, P.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Carpenter, K.E.|
This species is present throughout most of the Mediterranean and in the eastern Atlantic. In the shallower parts of its distribution, habitat degradation is a concern. There is no specific population information for this species, although its population is thought to be stable. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||In the eastern Atlantic, this species is present from Norway southwards to Senegal, including the United Kingdom, Ireland, Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
In the Mediterranean Sea, it is widespread in the northern and western Mediterranean and common in Cyprus, but absent from the south-eastern Levant, including Israel (Golani et al. 2006), Lebanon and Syria (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
Native:Albania; Algeria; Belgium; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Egypt; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Guernsey; Ireland; Italy; Jersey; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Monaco; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Senegal; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom; Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is widespread in the Mediterranean Sea. The population is stable in Turkey (Bilecenoglu pers. comm. 2008).
It is frequent but very minor catches in the Azores indicate that this species occurs in low numbers but is widespread and probably stable in its preferred habitat (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is mainly associated with coralligenous habitats, and particularly gorgonians. In the Azores (and probably in other Macaronesian islands), adults live bellow 50 m depth, only juveniles being sporadically found in shallower waters (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008). It is usually either solitary or found living in pairs in the case of younger individuals in the Mediterranean and also in the Azoreas (P. Afonso, pers. comm. 2008).
It mainly feeds on crustaceans, but may also consume small fishes and molluscs (Quignard and Pras 1986).
It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, and sex reversal is completed in seven months (Sadovy and Shapiro 1987, Lönnberg and Gustafson 1937). It displays marked sexual colour dimorphism, and in the breeding season builds nests of seaweed (Golani et al. 2006).
|Use and Trade:||This species is occasionally utilised for human food (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).|
The greatest threat to this species is habitat degradation due to eutrophication. Other lesser threats to its habitat are boat anchoring, bottom gear and diving activities that may destroy gorgonian corals. Habitat degradation is primarily a threat in the shallower areas of the distribution of this species (D. Pollard pers. comm. 2008).
The larger individuals of this species may be caught and used as a food fish in the Mediterranean Sea and the Macaronesian islands. It is commonly caught in trammel nets in Cyprus (Golani et al. 2006). In spite of the reduced catches, this may present a threat in the future given the intrinsic factors such as the low density and the sexuality of the species (P. Afonso pers. comm. 2008).
|Conservation Actions:||There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. Its distribution overlaps several marine protected areas within its range. Recommended conservation measures include regulation of human activites in areas of coralligenous habitats and the further inclusion of these habitats in Marine Protected Areas (D. Pollard pers comm. 2008).|
|Citation:||Pollard, D. & Afonso, P. 2010. Labrus mixtus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 February 2015.|
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