Pteropus livingstonii 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteropus livingstonii
Species Authority: Gray, 1866
Common Name(s):
English Comoro Black Flying Fox, Livingstone’s Fruit Bat, Livingstone's Flying Fox
French Roussette de Livingstone
Spanish Zorro Volador De Livingston
Pteropus livingstonei Andersen 1912

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2c; B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M. & Bergmans, W.
Reviewer(s): Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Endangered because of a serious population decline, estimated to be more than 50% over the next ten years, inferred from ongoing habitat loss and degradation, and because its extent of occurrence is less than 5,000 km², all individuals are in fewer than five locations, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Union of the Comoros, where it is only found on the islands of Anjouan and Moheli. On Anjouan, the species avoids lower parts of the island below 300 m asl, but it has been recorded feeding on Moheli at 40 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In 2002 there were estimated to be 1,200 bats in 20 roosts, many of which have been recently located as a result of the implementation of a national environmental education programme (Trewhella et al. 2005). Prior to the national environmental education programme there were estimated to be fewer than 200 bats.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species roosts on steep-sided valleys with south-east facing slopes, near ridge tops and in areas generally associated with natural vegetation (Granek 2002). Populations of this bat are largely confined to primary tropical moist forest (Mickleburgh et al. 1992). Animals feed on pollen, fruit and leaves, particularly of native Ficus species but also includes kapok (Ceiba pentandra) (Trewhella et al. 2001; Sewall et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by the continuing degradation of its forest habitat by conversion of land to agricultural use, especially the use of lowland areas for export crops (such as cloves). In degraded forest the species is outcompeted by the bat Pteropus seychellensis (Mickleburgh et al. 1992). Tree felling has additionally destroyed a number of roosts (Trewhella et al. 2005). There is also increased disturbance because of human population growth, however, the species is not hunted for food (Trewhella et al. 2005). The small remaining population is additionally potentially threatened in its restricted range by the effects of tropical cyclones.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A species action plan developed by the NGO Action Comoros is being implemented for this species (Sewall et al. 2003). A national environmental education programme has been implemented to raise awareness of this species (Trewhella et al. 2005). National legislation to protect this species is being developed (Trewhella et al. 2005) and work has begun to establish a forest reserve for this bat on Moheli and on evaluating a site for a reserve on Anjouan (Trewhella et al. 2005). There is an active captive-breeding programme underway for this species initiated by the Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Citation: Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M. & Bergmans, W. 2008. Pteropus livingstonii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T18732A8513037. . Downloaded on 28 August 2016.
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