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Pteropus caniceps 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteropus caniceps
Species Authority: Gray, 1870
Common Name(s):
English North Moluccan Flying Fox, Ashy-headed Flying-fox
Spanish Zorro Volador De Cabeza Ceniciento
Synonym(s):
Pteropus caniceps ssp. dobsoni Andersen, 1908
Taxonomic Notes: There’s probably some confusion identifying it in the field as it appears morphologically very similar to its sympatric congeneric, P. hypomelanus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-18
Assessor(s): Tsang, S.M.
Reviewer(s): Mildenstein, T.
Contributor(s): Hutson, A.M. and Helgen, K.
Justification:
This species is assessed as Vulnerable because its populations are most likely in decline due to the combined effects of hunting and habitat loss, thus making the species qualify for Vulnerable under criterion A3cd, suspected 30% decline over the next three generations (24 years; Pacifici et al. 2013). Also, its range is fragmented over several islands, it is dependent on tree hollows found in primary forests, meaning mining and logging activity likely has a greater impact on it.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is endemic to Indonesia, where it is known from the islands of Halmahera, Batjan, Tidore, and Ternate. Sula, Peleng, and Sangihe island records are erroneous (Bergmans and Rozendaal 1988, K. Helgen pers. comm., Koopman 1993). There is a single record from a Sulawesi market that is dubious, and there are no other records from this island.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Indonesia
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1630
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is rarely collected throughout its range, making population estimates difficult.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species lives in both primary and somewhat disturbed habitats. It probably roosts in small groups and is known to roost in tree hollows. It is probably not dependent on water and occurs from sea level up to 1,630 m asl. Some births are known to take place in November (Flannery 1995).
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):8

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting and deforestation due to expanding agriculture and logging are the main threats to this species. This species is particularly sensitive to deforestation as it relies on older trees for hollows. As most of the islands this species occupies are volcanic, mining companies have expanded their activities into these locations, particularly on Halmahera, which is considered a growing Industrial Center for Eastern Indonesia because of its mineral wealth. Especially damaging is the use of open pit mining of iron, nickel, and gold—a practice that is expanding in some areas of the species range. A mining ban is in place, but legal concessions gave 13 mining companies the right to ignore the mining ban, resulting in more logging activity and removal of protection to previously protected forests. Forested habitats post-mining do not provide tree hollow roosts for this species, as there will are no primary forests left at those sites.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place for this species; and it is not known if the species occurs in any protected areas. It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Tsang, S.M. 2016. Pteropus caniceps. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18719A22079034. . Downloaded on 30 September 2016.
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