Pteralopex anceps 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Pteropodidae

Scientific Name: Pteralopex anceps K. Andersen, 1909
Common Name(s):
English Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat
Taxonomic Notes: Traditionally, a single species of Pteralopex was thought to occur in the Greater Bukida Islands (Buka, Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Isabel), but there are actually two species here. Pteralopex anceps is a smaller, yellow or white-bellied species that, unlike P. flanneryi, prefers upland habitats (Helgen 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-06-13
Assessor(s): Lavery, T.H.
Reviewer(s): Mildenstein, T.
Contributor(s): Helgen, K., Hamilton, S., Leary, T. & Bonaccorso, F.J.
The Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat is listed as Endangered because there has been a significant decline of more than 50% in the population size suspected over the past three generations (19.29 years; Pacifici et al. 2013). Its distribution is fragmented, and there is continuing decline in its extent of occurrence (EOO), area of occupancy (AOO), and extent and quality of its habitat due to conversion of forests to agricultural land, and increased hunting pressure in parts of its range. This species is reliant on mature forest and is predominantly found in upland areas that are limited in size.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This little-known bat has been recorded from Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) and Choiseul (Solomon Islands) (Bowen-Jones 1997, Parnaby 2002, Helgen 2005, Pikacha 2008). Its overall range is recorded as sea level to 1,900 m; most of these animals are found in the upland areas. The species might also occur on Santa Isabel, but this requires confirmation (Helgen 2005). Extensive surveys carried out within ultramafic forest at 400 m asl on southern Santa Isabel in 2014, 800 m asl on northern Choiseul, and 300 m asl. on southern Bougainville in 2016 failed to detect the species.
Countries occurrence:
Papua New Guinea; Solomon Islands
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a rare species. While it has not been recorded since 1968 on Bougainville, the species was recorded from Choiseul in 1995 (Bowen-Jones et al. 1997) and then again sometime between 2005-2006 (Pikacha 2008). The overall population has declined significantly since the 1960s. This species was not recorded over a three year period 2002-2005 in lowland areas of eastern Bougainville despite attempts to acquire information from residents of the area (S. Hamilton pers. comm). The most recent record of this species was made by Pedro Uravutu at Sisiva on Bougainville in 2016.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Little is known about the habitat requirements of this species. It is likely that it inhabits mature tropical forest with the majority of records made from higher elevation mossy forest. An individual recorded on Bougainville was taken from its hollow tree roost. However, Bowen-Jones et al. (1997), Parnaby (2002) and Pikacha (2008) record observations, or traditional knowledge, of small groups hanging beneath the branches of large fig trees or amongst lianas. Hence, Pteralopex anceps does not appear to be an obligate hollow-roosting species. Helgen (2005) suggests the strongly developed incisors and anteriorly expanded brain case may mean this species practices tree gouging for exudate feeding. This feeding habit was suggested by informants on Choiseul (Parnaby 2002).
Generation Length (years):6.43

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is hunted for meat.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is suspected to have declined through the conversion of forests to agricultural land, and increased hunting pressure in parts of its range. It seems completely reliant on mature forest, primarily in upland areas. This species is sometimes hunted by burning the trees in which they roost (to smoke them out of hollows), thus capturing individuals and also destroying roost sites. Civil tensions in Bougainville from 1987 till 2000 likely resulted in an increase in hunting pressure (S. Hamilton pers. comm).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species does not occur within any legislatively protected areas. There is an urgent need to protect any remaining populations of this rare species.

Citation: Lavery, T.H. 2017. Pteralopex anceps. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T18656A22071126. . Downloaded on 24 March 2018.
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