|Scientific Name:||Pristis pristis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Pristis microdon Latham, 1794
Pristis perotteti Valenciennes, in Müller & Henle, 1841
Pristis zephyreus Jordan & Starks, 1895
Squalus pristis Linnaeus, 1758
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordinus, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||In a recent study, Faria et al. (2013) demonstrated that the existing taxonomy of the Pristidae required modification, recognising a total of five species in two genera. Pristis pristis had been recognised previously as consisting of up to three species (Pristis pristis, P. microdon and P. perotteti), but utilising a combination of mitochondrial DNA and morphological characters appears to be one species. While the P. pristis group is best considered a single species, it can be composed of a network of geographical units (subpopulations) that are not genetically distinct, but may be considered ecologically different.
Pristis pristis, has been referred to by many other names throughout its range. It was formerly known as P. perotteti in the Atlantic and sometimes in the Eastern Pacific, and P. microdon in the Indo-West Pacific.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) A2b; D (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Dulvy, N.K., Ferretti, F., Carlson, J. & Smith, K.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Dulvy, N.K. & Walls, R.H.L.|
European regional assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)
Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) is possibly extinct or its presence is uncertain throughout most of its former range in the Atlantic Ocean as a result of targeted fishing and bycatch in trawl and netting fisheries, compounded by habitat modification. It is a large (at least 6.5 m total length) euryhaline species, with juveniles occurring in freshwater systems and adults in marine and estuarine environments. It formerly had a widespread tropical range, consisting of four subpopulations (Eastern Atlantic, Western Atlantic, Eastern Pacific and Indo-West Pacific); all subpopulations have undergone significant population declines and the species is now apparently extinct in many former range states. Across the Atlantic Ocean, an absence of records from scientific surveys, anecdotal fisher observations, and fish landings data over its historic range infer a population reduction of ≥95% over a period of three generations (i.e., 1964 to present). In the Eastern Atlantic, there have been very few (< 10) records in the past decade. There is some uncertainty regarding the presence of sawfishes (Pristis spp.; referred to generically here due to a lack of species-specific information) in the Mediterranean Sea, with differing perspectives on whether sawfishes bred in the Mediterranean Sea, or whether they were regular visitors from elsewhere in the Eastern Atlantic. For the purposes of this assessment, the species is treated as a visitor in the Mediterranean Sea. The vast majority of accounts are historical, however a recent anecdotal record of a juvenile sawfish from a Tunisian fish market from ca. 1997 suggests that sawfish may still visit the Mediterranean Sea. Largetooth Sawfish, as a visiting species, can be considered Critically Endangered in the Mediterranean Sea based on the above-mentioned population reduction for the wider Atlantic Ocean and suspected small population size (< 50 mature individuals) in the Mediterranean Sea under Criteria A2b+D.
|Date last seen:||1997|
Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) comprises four distinct subpopulations: Eastern Atlantic, Western Atlantic, Eastern Pacific and Indo-West Pacific. In West Africa, there have been only two countries with confirmed records for the region in the last 10 years (Guinea-Bissau in 2003, 2004 and 2005, and Sierra Leone in 2003) and unconfirmed records (Pristis spp.) from one other country (Mauritania in 2010) (Tamburello et al. 2014).
There is some uncertainty regarding the presence of sawfishes in the Mediterranean Sea (Tortonese 1956, Whitehead et al. 1984, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002). Largetooth Sawfish was included in historic faunal lists (Serena 2005), and the examination of historical records indicates that there were at least 78 bibliographic accounts of both species of sawfish over the past 500 years (Ferretti et al. 2015). These records include fresh captures of juvenile and adult specimens, which has led to the suggestion that a breeding population was present. It has been alternatively hypothesized that sawfish were visitor species from areas of West Africa (this seems more likely for Largetooth Sawfish given the generally tropical nature of this species).
Native:Croatia; France (France (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland)); Slovenia; Spain (Baleares, Spain (mainland))
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Mediterranean and Black Sea
For the purposes of this assessment, Largetooth Sawfish has been considered a visitor to the Mediterranean Sea from its core Eastern Atlantic range in tropical West Africa.
Sawfishes have been described from the Mediterranean Sea since antiquity (< 2,000 years ago) and in medieval bestiaries, but these records lack taxonomic, geographic and quantitative detail (Ferretti 2014). There are few (n=82 bibliographic records, 21 museum specimens) records from the Mediterranean Sea over the past 500 years, and almost half of these records are duplications (Ferretti 2014, 2015). Many of these records are of rostra only and there is concern that they may have come from international trade rather than being caught locally (Ferretti 2014).
The first record of Largetooth Sawfish in the Mediterranean Sea was in 1573 while the last one was caught in 1959 (Ferretti 2014). Records come mainly from western Mediterranean coasts (France, Italy and Spain). Catch records of sawfishes were reported from eastern Languedoc, Provence, the Gulf of Naples, and the Adriatic Sea. Importantly, there is a recent record of a juvenile sawfish (Pristis spp.) from a Tunisian fish market from ca. 1997 (Ferretti et al. 2015), which supports the notion that this species may still visit the Mediterranean region.
Fish landings data over its historic range infer a population reduction of ≥ 95% over a period of three generations (i.e., 1964 to present) in the Eastern Atlantic, and this decline is inferred to have occurred through the whole of the European distribution, even when the species is treated as a visitor in the Mediterranean Sea.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Information pertaining the life history and habitat use of this species has not been published specific to Mediterranean waters, although it is inferred to be similar to, if not the same as, other regions from which it is documented extensively, such as Australia and Lake Nicaragua.
A key uncertainty in understanding whether sawfishes are residents in the Mediterranean Sea is the strong seasonality in temperature, which in the northernmost sectors cools to below 12°C, which is below the thermal ranges of marine regions where this species has been historically detected. The generation length of this species is estimated to be 17 years.
|Generation Length (years):||17|
|Use and Trade:||Sawfish rostra are culturally valued, economically valuable and hence are widely collected and frequently traded internationally (McDavitt and Charvet-Almeida 2004, McDavitt 2014).|
The principal threats to this species are from fishing; it was formerly targeted, but is now mostly taken incidentally in broad-spectrum fisheries (CITES 2007). The long toothed rostrums of sawfishes make them extraordinarily sensitive to entanglement in any sort of net gear, gillnetting and trawling in particular. The exploitation of elasmobranchs is high in many parts of the Largetooth Sawfish’s range, particularly in coastal areas and freshwater systems. Unregulated and unmanaged fisheries, and habitat loss and degradation all threaten sawfishes across large parts of its range.
For at least part of its life cycle, Largetooth Sawfish relies on a variety of specific habitat types including freshwater systems, estuaries and mangroves; these are all affected by human development (CITES 2007). Agricultural and urban development, commercial activities, dredge-and-fill operations, boating, erosion, and diversions of freshwater runoff as a result of continued coastal and catchment development has caused substantial loss or modification of these habitats (CITES 2007). Mining activities pose a risk to Largetooth Sawfish through freshwater habitat alteration or potential pollution events. Alterations to river courses are a threat to Largetooth Sawfish, which migrate upstream in early life stages.
All species of sawfish are listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), which effectively bans commercial international trade in sawfish or their parts.
Parties to the Barcelona Convention agreed in 2012 that sawfish as listed in Annex II of the Protocol concerning Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity in the Mediterranean Sea -- which includes Recommendation GFCM/36/2012/1 -- cannot be retained on board, transshipped, landed, transferred, stored, sold or displayed or offered for sale, and must be released unharmed and alive, to the extent possible.
|Citation:||Kyne, P.M. 2015. Pristis pristis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T18584848A48950295.Downloaded on 15 July 2018.|
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