|Scientific Name:||Brotia episcopalis|
|Species Authority:||H. Lea & I. Lea, 1851|
Melania episcopalis H. Lea & I. Lea, 1851
The species has often been synonymised under B. costula (e.g. Brandt 1968, Köhler and Glaubrecht 2001), but molecular studies have shown that B. episcopalis is a distinct species (Köhler and Glaubrecht 2006). The type locality is Malacca in Peninsula Malaysia.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Köhler, F. & Simonis, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sri-aroon, P., Seddon, M. & Burch, J.|
This species is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution. It is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing as threatened.
|Range Description:||This species is recorded from southern Thailand and mainly found in the Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra (recorded from Melaka, Malaysian Peninsula). A reported occurrence in Sumatra is uncertain.|
Native:Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Thailand
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||No species-specific conservation actions are known, but none are considered necessary.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species inhabits streams and rivers. It is rarely found in still water; it prefers fast flowing, well oxygenated waters.|
|Use and Trade:||No known trade in this species.|
It is not believed to be threatened over its entire range, but may be locally impacted by deforestation causing sedimentation, impoundment of water by dams and pollution from domestic and agricultural sources.
|Conservation Actions:||No species-specific conservation actions are known, but none are considered necessary.|
|Citation:||Köhler, F. & Simonis, J. 2012. Brotia episcopalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.|
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