|Scientific Name:||Fundulus bifax|
|Species Authority:||Cashner & Rogers, 1988|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Fundulus bifax formerly was included in F. stellifer; bifax is separable from stellifer by complete allelic differences at several loci and by details of pigmentation and breeding coloration (Rogers and Cashner 1987, Cashner et al. 1988). Allozyme data indicate that F. bifax is the sister to F. catenatus and that F. stellifer forms the sister group to the F. bifax-F. catenatus clade (Cashner et al. 1992).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
Listed as Near Threatened because extent of occurrence may be less than 5,000 km2, area of occupancy could be less than 2,000 km2, and habitat quality may be declining; however, the distribution is not severely fragmented, and the species occurs in many more than 10 locations, so the species does not fully qualify for the Vulnerable category. Population size is unknown.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Tallapoosa River system of Georgia and Alabama, and Sofkahatchee Creek (a westward flowing tributary of the lower Coosa River system of Alabama) (Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011). The species is widespread in the Tallapoosa River system but may be quite rare locally (Cashner et al. 1988). Most of the known range is in Alabama.
Extent of occurrence may be less than 5,000 square kilometres.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Mettee et al. (1996) and Boschung and Mayden mapped 20-21 collection sites representing perhaps 12-15 distinct occurrences (subpopulations).
Total adult population size is unknown. Page and Burr (2011) described this species as locally common, whereas Boschung and Mayden (2004) stated that the species is "uncommon in many areas" and "its numbers are usually few at any given site."
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This fish occurs over sand and gravel in margins, pools, and backwaters of creeks and small to medium rivers; it seems to be most abundant in shallow sandy backwaters of clean, free-flowing, medium-sized creeks (Cashner et al. 1988, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).|
|Major Threat(s):||Impoundments and degradation of water quality in streams presumably pose some level of threat.|
|Conservation Actions:||The biology and status of this species are poorly known.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2014. Fundulus bifax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 May 2015.|
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