Fundulus bifax


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Fundulus bifax
Species Authority: Cashner & Rogers, 1988
Common Name(s):
English Stippled Studfish
Taxonomic Notes: Fundulus bifax formerly was included in F. stellifer; bifax is separable from stellifer by complete allelic differences at several loci and by details of pigmentation and breeding coloration (Rogers and Cashner 1987, Cashner et al. 1988). Allozyme data indicate that F. bifax is the sister to F. catenatus and that F. stellifer forms the sister group to the F. bifax-F. catenatus clade (Cashner et al. 1992).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-03-09
Assessor(s): NatureServe (G. Hammerson)
Reviewer(s): Walsh, S.J. (Freshwater Fish Red List Authority), Collen, B., Dewhurst, N. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)
Fundulus bifax has been assessed as Near Threatened. This species is largely restricted to the upper Tallapoosa River system with an extent of occurrence of approximately 5,000 km². The restricted range of this species makes it particularly vulnearble to threats occuring within its range including alteration of the hydrological regime, and encroaching development. Further research is needed to assess the rate of population decline.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species range includes the Tallapoosa River system (Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004). The species is widespread in the Tallapoosa River system but may be quite rare locally (Cashner et al. 1988). Most of the known range is in Alabama and much of the population is restricted to the upper Tallapoosa River system. This species may have an extent of occurrence less than 5,000 km².
United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Mettee et al. (1996) and Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 20–21 collection sites representing perhaps 12–15 distinct subpopulations.

Total adult population size is unknown. Page and Burr (1991) described this species as locally common, whereas Boschung and Mayden (2004) stated that the species is "uncommon in many areas" and "its numbers are usually few at any given site."

Trends are unknown.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This fish occurs over sand and gravel in margins, pools, and backwaters of creeks and small to medium rivers. It seems to be most abundant in shallow sandy backwaters of clean, free-flowing, medium-sized creeks (Cashner et al. 1988, Page and Burr 1991, Mettee et al. 1996, Boschung and Mayden 2004).
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is likely to be impacted by threats upon its habitat and the flow regime of rivers and streams such as reservoirs, sediments (and other non-point sources), conversion of agricultural lands to urban corridors, severe droughts, and water abstraction (S.J. Walsh 2008 pers. comm.). The upper Tallapoosa River system is undergoing habitat degradation due to upland development, stream impoundment and altertion of the hydrological regime (Storey 2003). Due to the restricted range of this species, these could pose a significant future potential threat to the population of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is required on the threats faced by this species to determine how they are impacting the global population. Monitoring of the population numbers and distribution range of this species is needed to identify any threatened subpopulations.

Citation: NatureServe (G. Hammerson) 2010. Fundulus bifax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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