|Scientific Name:||Cetengraulis mysticetus|
|Species Authority:||(Günther, 1867)|
Anchovia opercularis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882
Cetengraulis engymen Gilbert and Pierson, 1898
Engraulis mysticetus Günther, 1867
Stolephorus opercularis Jordan and Gilbert, 1882
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is similar to Anchovia macrolepidota in general appearance, but is distinguished by the broad branchiostegal membrane (if split, can still be found with forceps); this distinguishes it from all other Pacific anchovies, which are usually more slender, have less deep heads, a longer maxilla, fewer gillrakers (FAO-FIGIS, 2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cotto, A., Medina, E. & Bernal, O.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is abundant in several areas within its range. There is no current indication of widespread population decline from commercial fishing. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific region, and is found from southern California, USA and the Gulf of California, Mexico to northern Peru, including the Revillagigedo and Galapagos Islands.|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered abundant in Nicaragua and Panama. In Panama, this species is present in groups of 20 to 120 t.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs inshore, principally over mud flats and forming quite large schools. Apparently, it does not make long migrations along sandy or rocky areas. Juveniles feed principally on diatoms, and also silico-flagellates, dinoflagellates and small crustaceans, while adults feed mainly on benthic diatoms and are oviparous with peliagic larvae (Whitehead et al. 1988, Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995, Watson and Sandknop 1996). In Panama, this species is more associated with the upwelling in Gulf of Panama, and migrating to shallower waters between between February and April.|
This species is highly commercial. It is used as tuna baitfish, and is processed into fishmeal and oil (Whitehead et al. 1988, Whitehead and Rodríguez-Sánchez 1995, Watson and Sandknop 1996). It is caught with cast nets for local consumption, but with lampara nets for the bait fishery, and purse seines for the reduction fishery, mainly within eight km of the shore (FAO-FIGIS 2001).
Since 1974, total harvests have had repeated fluctuations with peaks every two to four years. In 1995, 106,743 t of the Pacific Anchoveta was harvested in the Eastern Central Pacific, and 41,484 t in the Southeastern Pacific. However, in Panama, harvests were reduced by 34,742 metric t in 2004 in relation with year 2003, and over the last five years the catch has been between 47,000 and 134,000 t, with an average of 85,400 t (Martínez et al. 2005). By contrast, this species is no longer taken commercially in Nicaragua, and this species is only taken by artisanal fishing for bait fish.
|Conservation Actions:||This species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006). However, decreases in harvests of this species in Panama has led to the limitation of fishing licenses for the production of fishmeal and oil, and increased restrictions on the storage capacity of ships (Martínez et al. 2005). In an agreement between fishing companies, the fishing season in Panama is limited to the non-reproductive season, April to October, and since the groups are very homogeneous in size, only those with lengths of 13 cm or more are fished.|
|Citation:||Cotto, A., Medina, E. & Bernal, O. 2010. Cetengraulis mysticetus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 August 2015.|
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