|Scientific Name:||Lutjanus aratus|
|Species Authority:||(Günther, 1864)|
Mesoprion aratus Günther, 1864
Prionodes macropus Fowler, 1944
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bessudo, S., Acero, A., Rojas, P. & Cotto, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common throughout its range. There are no known major threats to this species, and no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern. However, since juveniles appear to be dependent on heavily impacted mangroves and estuaries as nursery areas and it is heavily fished, this species should be carefully monitored.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from southern Baja California and the central Gulf of California to Ecuador, including Cocos, Galapagos and Malpelo Islands.|
Native:Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is common in many parts of its range.
The mean abundance in Galapagos Island was of 1.08 individuals per 500 m2 and the majority of individuals were found far-northern of the island (Edgar et al. 2004). In the Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica, the median density was 0.001 individuals per m2, the standard deviation was 0.006 individuals per m2, the percentage of abundance was 0.039% and the maximum density registered for the species was 0.021 individuals per m2 (Rojas 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This reef-associated species can be found over hard substrate to at least 50 m depth. Adults may form schools consisting of several hundreds of individuals (Allen 1995). For example, in Malpelo, this species aggregates in large groups over sandy and rubble substrate to 60 m. Juveniles are encountered in shallow waters, including littoral pools and estuaries, and may utilize mangroves and river mouths as nursery grounds.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is commercially important, and it is easily caught since they aggregate in large groups. On the Pacific coast of Panamá, specifically in the Veraguas Province, it is considered to be one of the most important commercial species of the region (Maté 2005). This species is mostly marketed fresh (Coppola 1994).|
|Major Threat(s):||The loss of mangroves throughout its range from coastal development may also negatively impact the availability and quality of nursery areas for juveniles of this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).|
|Citation:||Bessudo, S., Acero, A., Rojas, P. & Cotto, A. 2010. Lutjanus aratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 March 2015.|
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