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Ethmidium maculatum

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII CLUPEIFORMES CLUPEIDAE

Scientific Name: Ethmidium maculatum
Species Authority: (Valenciennes 1847)
Common Name(s):
English Menhaden, Pacific menhaden, Pacific menhaden (FB), Shad
French Menhaden du Pacifique
Spanish Machete, Machuelo, Tritr, Tritre
Synonym(s):
Alausa coerulea Valenciennes 1847
Alausa maculata Valenciennes 1847
Brevoortia maculata (Valenciennes 1847)
Brevoortia maculata chilcae (Hildebrand 1946)
Clupea maculata (Valenciennes 1847)
Clupea notacanthoides Steindachner 1869
Clupea notacanthus Günther 1868
Ethmidium chilcae Hildebrand 1946

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-05-01
Assessor(s): Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Smith-Vaniz, B.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species' distribution is limited to Chile and Peru. This region is heavily exploited by commercial fishing industries which have over-fished this region and destroyed biodiversity. Although some species may be slowly recovering, the over-exploitation of the fishery resources in this region continues. Pressure from fisheries combined with threat from climatic events, such as ENSO, could threaten the survival of this species in the future. Therefore this species is listed as Data Deficient. More fisheries data is needed to adequately assess this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is distributed only in the southeastern Pacific in Peru (Puerto Pizarro in the Gulf of Guayaquil to Callao and Pisco Bay; presumably to the border with Chile, but no records exist) and Chile (entire coast south to Talcahuano) (Espino et al. 1989).
Countries:
Native:
Argentina; Chile; Ecuador; Peru
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – southeast
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: No population data is available for this species.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a pelagic species that occurs in coastal waters and is known to form large schools. It is found as deep as 10 m. It feeds by filtering phytoplankton (diatoms) and zooplankton (especially copepods), but will also eat small fishes and crustaceans. This species breeds in spring, in Chile, depositing its eggs in coastal waters on sand, to which the sticky eggs cling. Upon hatching, the larvae then rise and join the surface plankton (Herrera et al. 1987).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is important for commercial fisheries. The main harvesting countries are Chile and Peru in FAO Area 87 - from 1,000 to 10,000. Seines are the primary method of harvesting this species. It is marketed fresh, frozen, or canned. (Espino et al. 1989, FAO 1992)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Fisheries in the South American region, where this species is native, are overexploited or slowly recovering. The industrial fleet is mainly responsible for overfishing and the destruction of marine biodiversity in the Humbolt Current region. This situation has led to multinational control and a monopoly on these fisheries (Cardenas and Mellillanca 1999). Along with the fisheries pressure, oceanographic environmental changes such as ENSO/global warming may have fatal effects on the marine ecosystems and the survival of this restricted, south eastern Pacific species (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species' distribution includes at least a few Marine Protected Areas in the Humboldt current area in the tropical eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).

Citation: Iwamoto, T., Eschmeyer, W. & Smith-Vaniz, B. 2010. Ethmidium maculatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.
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