|Scientific Name:||Orthopristis forbesi|
|Species Authority:||Jordan & Starks, 1897|
|Taxonomic Notes:||There is some confusion about the identity of this species in the Galapagos Islands. More taxonomic research is required to elucidate differences between three Galapagos species of Orthopristis (O. cantharinus, O. forbesi, and O. lethopristis).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)|
This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. However, the taxonomy of this species needs to be clarified before a conservation assessment can be made. It is listed as Data Deficient.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found only in the Galápagos Islands.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species. This species was studied in different sites at Galápagos archipelago, with an overall mean abundance of 2.80 individuals per 500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004), however, underwater visual census records of this species have been partly confused with other Orthopristis species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This reef-associated species may form schools above rocky, boulder strewn reefs, slopes and hard substrate with strong currents or tides. It may mingle with yellowtail grunts and golden-eyed grunts (Humann and Deloach 1993).|
No major threats are known to this species. However, given this species' restricted distribution and shallow water habitat, future oceanographic environmental changes such as ENSO/global warming, destruction of mangroves or estuaries, and coastal development may have detrimental effects on the marine ecosystems and the survival of these shallow water regional endemic species (Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004).
Populations of haemulid species (Orthopristis spp., Anisotremus interruptus and A. scapularis, Haemulon scudderi) declined less than 50% during 1997/98 El Niño, but populations recovered over the subsequent two year period.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures known for this species. While present in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area (Roca et al. 2003), better enforcement of zone regulations are required to adequately safeguard these Galápagos endemic species.|
|Citation:||Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, F., Edgar, G. & Merlen, G. 2010. Orthopristis forbesi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 July 2015.|
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