Garra dembeensis 

Scope: Global & Pan-Africa
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Cypriniformes Cyprinidae

Scientific Name: Garra dembeensis (Rüppell, 1835)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Dembea Stone Lapper
Chondrostoma dembeensis Rüppell, 1835
Discognathus chiarinii Vinciguerra, 1883
Discognathus dembeensis (Rüppell, 1835)
Discognathus giarrabensis Gianferrari, 1932
Discognathus johnstonii Boulenger, 1901
Discognathus vinciguerrae Boulenger, 1901
Garra giarrabensis (Gianferrari, 1932)
Garra johnstonii (Boulenger, 1901)
Garra vinciguerrae (Boulenger, 1901)
Gymnostomus dembeensis (Rüppell, 1835)
Taxonomic Notes: There has been confusion in the literature between G. dembeensis, G. johnstonii and G. hindii. G. johnstonii is a junior synonym of G. dembeensis (Getahun 2000), but G. hindii differs in having a fully scaled predorsum, belly and chest (Stiassny and Getahun 2007). It does however share two important meristic and morphometric features with G. dembeensis: a high number of scales in the lateral line and a vent located away from the anal fin. This species is also recorded as Garra sp., Discognathus johnstonii Boulenger, 1901 and D. hindii Boulenger, 1905 (two junior synonyms also included in Garra) and D. dembeensis (antiquated binomen) (Seegers et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-10-30
Assessor(s): FishBase team RMCA & Geelhand, D.
Reviewer(s): Kishe, M., Natugonza, V., Nyingi, D. & Snoeks, J.
Contributor(s): Musschoot, T., Boden, G., Bousso, T., Getahun, A., Hanssens, M., Lalèyè, P., Moelants, T. & Ntakimazi, G.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Darwall, W.R.T.
Garra dembeensis is widely distributed, with no known major widespread threats. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. It has also been assessed regionally as Least Concern for central, eastern, northern and northeastern Africa. In Western Africa, this species is known from the Chad and Benué basins. There is no information on threats and no data on the abundance.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widely distributed in Africa. It is known from Nigeria to Ethiopia, and from Egypt to Tanzania.

Central Africa: It is known from Cameroon (Vivien 1991, De Weirdt et al. 2007). It is reported from the Kwango River (Middle Congo basin) in Angola (Poll 1967), and from the Aruwimi (Nichols and Griscom 1917, David and Poll 1937), Uélé (Nichols and Griscom 1917) and Lower Congo Rivers (Pellegrin 1928) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. However, presence in the Congo River basin is not confirmed in Stiassny and Getahun (2007).  

Eastern Africa: It is found in the Lake Victoria drainage, northern Ewaso Nyiro, Pangani drainage, Athi and Tana basins (Seegers et al. 2003). It is also known from the Mukungwa River (Upper Akagera system) in Rwanda (De Vos et al. 2001) and from the Victoria Nile in Uganda (Greenwood 1966).

Northern Africa: It has been reported from Egypt (Stiassny and Getahun 2007). 

Northeast Africa: It is widely distributed in Ethiopia. It is present in Lake Tana, Omo, Baro, Abbay, Awash basins (Getahun 2007, Stiassny and Getahun 2007), Abaya basin, Lake Shala and Lake Ziway (Stiassny and Getahun 2007). It is also found in the White Nile in Sudan (Bailey 1994) and present but rare in upper Nile and Lake Nasser (also known as Lake Nubia). 

Western Africa: It is known from the Upper Logone River (Chad basin) (Blache et al. 1964, Lévêque 2003) and the Benué River in Nigeria (Stiassny and Getahun 2007).
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Chad; Egypt; Ethiopia; Kenya; Nigeria; Rwanda; South Sudan; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is known to occur in great abundance in different basins of the northeast region. No further information is available on the population size and population trend of this species.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Garra dembeensis is a benthopelagic species. It is commonly found in rapid parts of rivers (Eccles 1992) and also on wave-washed rocky shores of lakes (Greenwood 1966). It adheres to stones in swift water (Bailey 1994). It prefers habitats that are vegetated, as it is abundantly found in such habitats. It can also adapt to habitats that are highly affected by human activities. This species feeds on epilithic algae and lithophilic insects (Corbet 1961), which it scrapes from the surface of rocks (Greenwood 1966). Breeding behaviour of Garra species is poorly known but spawning migration of lacustrine Garra species to rivers is presumed to occur (Stiassny and Getahun 2007). The maximum size is 11.0 cm SL (Eccles 1992).
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested for human consumption. It has minor commercial importance for the aquarium trade (Froese and Pauly 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has minor commercial importance for the aquarium trade (Froese and Pauly 2003). Water turbidity due to erosion on river basins, a consequence of agriculture expansion and deforestation, is likely to be threatening east African subpopulations. In northeast Africa, degradation of the environment appears to have impact on the abundance of this species, although not crucially impacting the existence of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known for this species. More research is needed into the population numbers and range (in Central Africa), habitat status and threats, as well as monitoring of population and habitat trends.

Citation: FishBase team RMCA & Geelhand, D. 2016. Garra dembeensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T181829A84243484. . Downloaded on 15 October 2018.
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