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Pseudupeneus prayensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Mullidae

Scientific Name: Pseudupeneus prayensis (Cuvier, 1829)
Common Name(s):
English West African Goatfish
French Rouget
Synonym(s):
Upeneus prayensis Cuvier, 1829

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2ad ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2013-05-13
Assessor(s): Camara, K., Carpenter, K.E., Djiman, R., Nunoo, F., Sagna, A., Sidibé, A, Sylla, M., de Morais, L., Quartey, R. & Lindeman, K.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B. & Strongin, K.
Justification:
Pseudopeneus prayensis is distributed from Mauritania south to Angola, including the Cape Verde Islands, Sao Tome and Principe. It is found to depths of 300 m. Pseudupeneus prayensis is a major targeted commercial species off the coast of West Africa, and is targeted by artisanal and recreational fisheries and is considered fully exploited. It is considered moderately exploited in Cape Verde. It is caught primarily by industrial trawl, and is also occasionally taken by trammel and entangling nets. Over the last 10 years, aggregate landings for all countries reporting in the Eastern Central Atlantic (ECA) have declined by 64%, while those reported by West African nations fluctuate but show a slight decline. Scientific surveys in Mauritania over the past 10 years, also do not show a clear decline. However, effort in West African nations is assumed to be stable or increasing, while little is known on European fishing effort in the region. European vessels also have the capacity to fish at deeper depths  Biomass estimates from 1989-2006 from Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea were used to model a yearly rate of 5% decline for this species. Based on overall ECA declines in reported landings, and modelled declines of approximately 50% in one part of this species range in the ECA, it is estimated that there has been at least a 30% decline in population over the past 10 years. It is listed as Vulnerable under A2ad. However, more information on European fishing effort for this species may qualify this species for a higher threat category. Additionally, more species-specific catch data and information on the biology are needed. This species should be prioritized for fisheries management.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pseudopeneus prayensis is distributed from Mauritania south to Angola, including the Cape Verde Islands, Sao Tome and Principe (Golani in press, Socpa et al. 2009). It is rarely found in the western Mediterranean. It is found to depths of 300 m, but is more commonly found in the upper 50 m (Golani in press). It has recently been recorded off the Tunisian coast (Azzouz et al. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola; Benin; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mauritania; Nigeria; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo; Tunisia
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Pseudupeneus prayensis is common and can be locally abundant. Captures of this species are most numerous off Mauritania, Senegal and Guinea Bissau, and this species appears to be shifting its range northwards (Azzouz et al. 2011). It is a major component of the demersal assemblage in Sao Tome and Principe (Socpa et al. 2009).

Using a data-series provided by CRODT (Centre de recherches oceanographique de Dakar-Thiaroye) which extends to 1999, a rapid-global evaluation of the status of stocks of P. prayensis was modelled. Captures of P. prayensis have fluctuated, with an overall steady decline from 1981 to 1999. It was considered over-exploited in the last two years of the data-series, but its situation was considered to be the least alarming of the five species which were evaluated in this document (its status was compared to Galeoides decadactylus, Pagellus bellottiiSparus caeruleostictus and Epinephelus aeneus). Estimated biomass has fluctuated slightly from 1983 to 1998, as has calculated fishing effort (Gascuel and Laurans 2001; Laurans et al. 2003).

Trends in demersal fisheries off the continental shelf of Mauritania: The fisheries of the northwestern African continental shelf have developed over the past several decades from low levels of fishing to intense exploitation, leading to severe decreases in biomass and serious signs of over-exploitation. In general, the abundance of demersal resources of northwest Africa has declined by a factor of four over the past 20 to 30 years. Over the Mauritanian continental shelf, reductions in biomass of up to 75% have been recorded.
Using data from scientific surveys conducted in Mauritanian waters, trends in species biomass were modelled for 24 taxa, 15 of which showed significant decreasing trends, and only one of which showed increases in abundance. For P. prayensis, mean yearly rates of decrease in biomass of ~4.7% off of the Mauritanian continental shelf were calculated over using a model fitted to trends seen from 1989 to 2006. These trends are reflective of the fishing pressure experienced also by this species in Senegal and Guinea (Gascuel et al. 2007).

Based on scientific survey data from 2000-2011, there has been fluctuating captures with an average of 60 kg per 30 minute trawl survey, but no indication of decline (Camara pers. comm. 2013).

FAO capture statistics aggregate landings:Over the last 10 years, landings of P. prayensis have declined 64% from 3,682 tonnes in 2001 to 1,322 tonnes reported in 2011. Landings reported by only West African nations fluctuate with a slight decline over the course of 10 years (FAO database). Highest landings are reported from Nigeria, followed by Ghana.

From 1960-1998 there were no trends in changes in mean size or weight for this species (ISTAM database).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pseudupenus prayensis is found primarily over muddy or sandy substrates. It feeds on benthic invertebrates (Golani in press). It is also found over rocky reefs to depths of 300 m. This species is not common in estuaries.
Systems:Marine
Generation Length (years):2-3

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Pseudupeneus prayensis is a major commercial species in the Eastern Central Atlantic. It is caught primarily by trawl, and is also occasionally taken by trammel and entangling nets (Golani in press). It is among the most important coastal demersal fishery resources exploited in Ghana (Aggrey-Fynn 2007). In Senegal, this species is an important demersal resource which is targeted by industrial and artisanal fisheries (Laurans et al. 2003, Niang 2009).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Pseudupeneus prayensis is a major targeted commercial species off the coast of West Africa. As of 2009, this resource is considered fully exploited by the fisheries of Senegal (Thiao 2009, referenced in Niang 2009) and in the Gambia, where it is managed as a single stock. It is considered moderately exploited in Cape Verde (FIRMS 2013). It is taken as by-catch in commercial octopus fisheries operating off the coast of Senegal and Guinea.

This species is caught with hook and line and set-nets in mixed-catch fisheries, and is the most preferred goatfish in the fishery. In Ghana, in 2009 there was an average of 70 kg taken per day in the artisanal boats, and 318 kg per day in set nets. Large quantities are exported to Europe, both fresh and frozen.

The fisheries of the northwestern African continental shelf have developed over the past several decades from low levels of fishing to intense exploitation, leading to severe decreases in biomass and serious signs of over-exploitation. In general, the abundance of demersal resources of northwest Africa has declined by a factor of four over the past 20 to 30 years. Over the Mauritanian continental shelf, reductions in biomass of up to 75% have been recorded. Using data from scientific surveys conducted in Mauritanian waters, trends in species biomass were modelled for 24 taxa, 15 of which showed significant decreasing trends, and only one of which showed increases in abundance. For P. prayensis, mean yearly rates of decrease in biomass of ~4.7% off of the Mauritanian continental shelf were calculated over using a model fitted to trends seen from 1989 to 2006. These trends are reflective of the fishing pressure experienced also by this species in Senegal and Guinea (Gascuel et al. 2007).

Pseudupeneus prayensis is taken as by-catch in industrial shrimp fisheries and caphalopod fisheries (FAO 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: FAO, through the CECAF/COPACE group has instituted a system for evaluating stocks of P. prayensis in littoral northeast Atlantic waters (Niang 2009).

Citation: Camara, K., Carpenter, K.E., Djiman, R., Nunoo, F., Sagna, A., Sidibé, A, Sylla, M., de Morais, L., Quartey, R. & Lindeman, K. 2015. Pseudupeneus prayensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T18177478A42691864. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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