|Scientific Name:||Pristis pectinata|
|Species Authority:||Latham, 1794|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Faria et al. (2013) state that both morphology and genetics support the current specific status of the Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) and propose modification of the distribution of the species to an Atlantic only range. No geographical structure of Smalltooth Sawfish populations is present, and Western and Eastern Atlantic populations of Smalltooth Sawfish likely represent separate units for conservation purposes.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Carlson, J., Wiley, T. & Smith, K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Castro, J. & Böhm, M.|
The Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) has been wholly or nearly extirpated from large areas of its former range in the Atlantic Ocean by fishing (trawl and inshore netting) and habitat modification. Negative records from scientific surveys, anecdotal fisher observations, and fish landings data over its historic range infer a population reduction of ≥95% over a period of three generations (i.e., 1962 to present). The remaining populations are now small, and fragmented. The species can only be reliably encountered in the Bahamas (where suitable habitat is available) and the United States (Georgia south to Louisiana). It is rare but present in Honduras, Belize, Cuba, Sierra Leone, and possibly Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania. Threats to Smalltooth Sawfish still exist today in areas where sawfish are unprotected and habitat modification (mangrove removal) and inshore netting still occurs.
|Range Description:||In the Western Atlantic Ocean, Smalltooth Sawfish were widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical marine and estuarine waters. Smalltooth Sawfish were found from Uruguay through the Caribbean and Central America, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic coast of the United States (Faria et al. 2013). However, Smalltooth Sawfish has been wholly or nearly extirpated from large areas of its former range. The species is currently known to occur in the southeastern United States (Simpfendorfer 2002), Bahamas (D. Grubbs pers. comm. 2012), Cuba, Honduras and Belize (R. Graham pers. comm. 2012).
The current distribution of Smalltooth Sawfish in the Eastern Atlantic is uncertain due to species misidentification, lack of reporting, and the general contraction of its range. Smalltooth Sawfish was historically found along the coast of western Africa from Angola to Mauritania (Faria et al. 2013). There has been only one confirmed record for the region in the last 10 years (Sierra Leone in 2003). There are unconfirmed records (Pristis sp.) from only two other countries (Guinea-Bissau in 2011, and Mauritania 2010).
The presence of sawfishes in the Mediterranean Sea is still uncertain (Whitehead et al. 1984, Bilecenoğlu and Taşkavak 1999). Although Smalltooth Sawfish were included in historic faunal lists (Serena 2005), it is still debatable whether sawfishes occurred as part of the Mediterranean ichthyofauna or are a vagrant species as seasonal migrants from areas off western Africa. Reports of Smalltooth Sawfish outside of the Atlantic Ocean are likely misidentifications of other sawfish species (Faria et al. 2013).
Native:Bahamas; Belize; Cuba; Honduras; Sierra Leone; United States
Possibly extinct:Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Barbados; Benin; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Curaçao; Dominica; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guinea; Jamaica; Liberia; Martinique; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire); Nigeria; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Senegal; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uruguay; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
At the end of the 19th century the Smalltooth Sawfish was common in inshore waters of the western North Atlantic (e.g., Goode 1884, Henshall 1895, Jordan and Evermann 1896, Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). In the United States, the Smalltooth Sawfish population appears to have declined dramatically during the middle and later parts of the 20th century (Simpfendorfer 2002). Based on the contraction of the range and declines in landings, it is likely that the US population size is currently less than 5% of its size at the time of European settlement (Simpfendorfer 2002). However, the population of Smalltooth Sawfish may have stabilised in the United States. Based on genetic sampling, estimates of the current effective population size range of the US population of Smalltooth Sawfish were from 269.6–504.9 individuals (95% Confidence Interval 139.3–1,515) (Chapman et al. 2011).Carlson and Osborne (2012) reported the relative abundance of sawfish increased at an average rate of about 3–5% per year since 1989 based on of voluntary dockside interviews of sport fishers in the US. Despite a low population size in the US, the Smalltooth Sawfish population will probably retain >90% of its current genetic diversity over the next century (Chapman et al. 2011).
In the Western Atlantic, no data on population size or trends in abundance exist outside of US waters, and the only information on trends in the population can be inferred from anecdotal capture records. While early records of this species include most countries throughout Central and South America, records and reports indicate Smalltooth Sawfish can now only be reliably encountered in the Bahamas (where suitable habitat is available), Honduras, Belize, and Cuba.
There are no data on population size for the Eastern Atlantic and the only information on trends in the population can be inferred from anecdotal capture records. Smalltooth Sawfish were once common in western African waters, but today records are sparse. Early records of this species include most countries from Angola to Mauritania. Specific records on length and sex of individuals come from Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia and Guinea-Bissau (Faria et al. 2013). However, there has been only one confirmed record for the region in the last 10 years (Sierra Leone in 2003). There are unconfirmed records (Pristis sp.) from only two other countries (Guinea-Bissau in 2011, and Mauritania 2010). It is likely that areas around Guinea-Bissau represent the last areas where sawfish can be found in western Africa (M. Diop pers. comm. 2012).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Currently, life history information for the Smalltooth Sawfish is only available for the Western Atlantic and it assumed that life history parameters are similar for conspecifics throughout the Atlantic Ocean. This species is lecithotrophic viviparous and litter size is thought to be 15–20 pups (Simpfendorfer 2005) born every other year, but there are little supporting data for this. Demographic analysis using early reports of life history and estimates from other pristids indicated that Smalltooth Sawfish intrinsic rate of increase ranged from 0.08 to 0.13 yr−1, and population doubling times from 5.4 to 8.5 yrs (Simpfendorfer 2000).
There is still some question regarding age and size at maturity for Smalltooth Sawfish. Simpfendorfer (2005) reported maturity at 360 cm TL for females. However, females of 300–400 cm stretched total length (STL) necropsied from the US were immature, with the smallest mature female examined being 415 cm STL (J.K. Carlson unpublished data). Males were thought to be mature about 270 cm TL (Simpfendorfer 2005). However, a recently necropsied male Smalltooth Sawfish that was 308 cm TL was found to be immature (J.K. Carlson unpublished data). The smallest mature male from field-collected specimens was 371 cm STL (J.K. Carlson unpublished data). Back-transforming these lengths into ages using the von Bertalanffy growth model of Scharer et al. (2012) indicates that males mature around 7.5 years and females 10–12 years. As these data indicate much faster growth and earlier maturation than previously determined, any updated demographic model will likely indicate higher productivity and rebound potential. Moreno Iturria (2012) constructed a deterministic model based on standard life table techniques using growth estimates from Simpfendorfer et al. (2008) and calculated demographic parameters for Smalltooth Sawfish for US waters. Intrinsic rates of increase were estimated as 0.07 per year, generation time 17 years and population doubling time 9.7 years.
Recent information on tag-recaptured juvenile Smalltooth Sawfish collected in Florida, USA, indicates substantially faster growth than previously assumed for this species. Simpfendorfer et al. (2008) found that growth was rapid during the first two years after birth.
Using data from reported encounters from 1998 to 2008, Wiley and Simpfendorfer (2010) evaluated Smalltooth Sawfish habitat use patterns in the US. There was an inverse relationship between sawfish size and extent of northern distribution, with animals less than 200 cm having a wider latitudinal distribution and occurring farthest north, and animals greater than 200 cm reported mostly in southern Florida (Wiley and Simpfendorfer 2010). Most encounters occurred in estuarine and nearshore habitats, and their locations were not randomly distributed, having a positive association with inshore mangrove and seagrass habitats. While sawfish were reported in depths to 73 m, there was a significant relationship between size and depth, with smaller animals occurring in shallower waters (Wiley and Simpfendorfer 2010).
Data from acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture information indicates Smalltooth Sawfish (less than 100 cm) had the smallest home ranges, low linearity of movement, and a preference for very shallow mud banks (Simpfendorfer et al. 2010). Juveniles greater than 100 cm demonstrated larger home ranges, preference for shallow mud/sand banks, and remained close to mangrove shorelines. Tide was found to be the main factor influencing movement on short time scales. Sawfish <150 cm STL spend the majority of their time in water <0.5 m deep, while larger juveniles spend most of their time in water 0.5–1.0 m deep. Juveniles >130 cm had high levels of site fidelity for specific nursery areas for periods up to almost 3 months, but the smaller juveniles had relatively short site fidelity to specific locations (Simpfendorfer et al. 2010).
Based on data from catch-per-unit effort (CPUE), Poulakis et al. (2011) found that most juvenile Smalltooth Sawfish had an affinity for water less than 1.0 m deep, water temperature over 30ºC, dissolved oxygen over 6 mg/L, and salinity between 18 and 30. Greater catch rates for sawfish over age one were associated with shoreline habitats with overhanging vegetation such as mangroves (Poulakis et al. 2011).
Simpfendorfer et al. (2011) conducted a long-term tracking study and found mean daily activity space was 1.42 km of river distance. The distance between 30-minute centres of activity was typically 0.1 km, suggesting limited movement over short time scales. Salinity electivity analysis demonstrated an affinity for salinities between 18 and at least 24, suggesting movements are likely made in part, to remain within this range (Simpfendorfer et al. 2011).
The US National Marine Fisheries Service designated critical habitat for the US distinct population segment of Smalltooth Sawfish (Norton et al. 2012). The nursery habitats essential to the conservation of the species were identified as those adjacent to red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and euryhaline habitats with water depths less than or equal to 0.9 m (Norton et al. 2012).
For adult sawfish, unpublished data from pop-off archival satellite transmitting (PAT) tags indicate Smalltooth Sawfish spend the majority of their time in shallow waters (<10 m deep) and prefer temperatures between 22°C and 28°C (J.K. Carlson unpublished data). The maximum recorded depth for Smalltooth Sawfish is 88 m.
|Use and Trade:||
While international trade in sawfishes is banned under the species’ listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), illegal international trade may still exist due to the high value of their products.
McDavitt (2005) reviewed all available information related to sawfish trade and identified six sawfish parts, derived mostly from sawfish captured as bycatch in fisheries, which were historically or currently found in trade. These sawfish parts identified in trade are: fins, whole rostra, rostral teeth, meat, organs and skin. It appears that the commercial trade in Smalltooth Sawfish parts from the US population is currently minimal due to their rarity. However, the demand for fins and rostrums provides a motivation to kill sawfish, a threat that will become increasingly significant as the population recovers (NMFS 2009).
The fins of sawfish are used to produce shark fin soup and sawfish fins are highly favored in Asian markets (NMFS 2009). Because of their large fins with high fin needle content, fins of species in the family Pristidae are highly valued for shark fin soup (CITES 2007).
Sawfish rostra are often traded as curios, ceremonial weapons, or for use in traditional medicines (NMFS 2009). Rostra have long been a favorite marine curio (Migdalski 1981), with large rostra commanding impressive prices (McDavitt 1996).
Rostral teeth of species in the family Pristidae have been the preferred material used to manufacture artificial spurs on Peruvian fighting cocks (Cogorno Ventura 2001). The rostral teeth are mostly obtained from Brazil, Ecuador, Panama and various Caribbean countries (CITES 2007). In the north of Brazil, Charvet-Almeida (2002) reported a limited market for meat, rostra and rostral teeth of sawfishes.
Sawfish are regularly used for their meat. However, most of the consumption is local and so they appear to be only occasionally traded beyond local markets (NMFS 2009). Sawfish meat has been utilised historically in the US; Romer (1936) reported that sawfish were the second most common elasmobranch species taken in the shark fishery in the Florida Keys during the 1930s (NMFS 2009).
Sawfish liver has also been used as a source of liver oil and the fishery in the Florida Keys described by Romer (1936) used livers as a source of vitamin A (NMFS 2009). The use of livers as a source of vitamin A stopped during the 1940s when cheap synthetic forms became available (NMFS 2009). Chinese traditional medicine also uses other sawfish parts, including liver, ova and gall bladder (NMFS 2009).
Sawfish skin has been used to produce leather, which, like shark leather, is considered of very high quality (NMFS 2009). The leather is used to make belts, boots, purses, and even to cover books (NMFS 2009).
Species in the family Pristidae are highly prized as exhibit animals in public aquaria because of their charismatic nature (McDavitt 1996). Sawfish have been exhibited in large public aquaria for over 50 years. Their large size, bizarre shape, and shark-like features have made them popular additions to shark aquaria exhibits worldwide (NMFS 2009). Since their Endangered Species Act listing, NMFS has not granted any permits to take live Smalltooth Sawfish for public display although there has been some trade between institutions that house these sawfish, but no new specimens have been added (NMFS 2009). To meet the demand for sawfish for public display, US aquaria turned to suppliers in Australia who supplied the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis) (NMFS 2009). However, Largetooth Sawfish can no longer be exported from Australia.
See CITES (2007) for a comprehensive overview of trade in sawfishes.
The principal threats to Smalltooth Sawfish are from fishing; it was formerly targeted, but is now mostly taken incidentally in broad-spectrum fisheries (CITES 2007). The long toothed rostrum of sawfish makes them extremely vulnerable to entanglement in any sort of net gear, gillnetting and trawling in particular. Depleted populations mean that commercial targeting of most stocks is no longer cost-effective and bycatch mortality is now the primary threat to Smalltooth Sawfish (CITES 2007). However, there are indications that sawfish are at times targeted opportunistically for the shark fin trade (CITES 2007). There have been some large-scale fisheries targeting the species, including in the southeastern US in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and possibly in Brazil from the 1960s to 1980s (CITES 2007).
In West Africa, shark fishing increased significantly in the past several decades and ‘the intensive exploitation of sharks over the past thirty years has completely decimated the most vulnerable populations…’ (Diop and Dossa 2011). The disappearance of sawfish in the region was thought to have begun in the 1970s when new fishers entered the region and new fishing gear was developed (Diop and Dossa 2011). Threats are ongoing in the region and given that many areas still have artisanal gillnet fisheries with little or no regulation, it is likely the population will continue to decline.
Habitat degradation and loss also threaten sawfishes throughout their range (CITES 2007). The Smalltooth Sawfish relies on a variety of specific habitat types including estuaries and mangroves; these are all affected by human development (CITES 2007). Agricultural and urban development, commercial activities, dredge-and-fill operations, boating, erosion, and diversions of freshwater runoff as a result of continued coastal and catchment development has caused substantial loss or modification of these habitats (CITES 2007).
All species of sawfish are listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES), which effectively bans commercial international trade in sawfish or their parts.
National protections for Smalltooth Sawfish have been adopted in the United States. Smalltooth Sawfish were listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 2003 which makes it illegal to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or to attempt to engage in any such conduct with Smalltooth Sawfish. ‘Critical Habitat’ has also been established for juvenile Smalltooth Sawfish in the US (NMFS 2009, Norton et al. 2012), which is a key conservation objective, designed to facilitate recruitment into the adult sawfish population by protecting juvenile nursery areas.
Outside US waters, Nicaragua imposed a permanent ban on targeted sawfish fishing in Lake Nicaragua. In Brazil, the Smalltooth Sawfish is protected (no take) by the Ministry of Environment and in Mexico the take of all sawfishes is banned. Sawfish are protected in the Exclusive Economic Zone in Guinea and Senegal and in Marine Protected Areas in Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau (S.V. Fordham pers. comm.).
|Citation:||Carlson, J., Wiley, T. & Smith, K. 2013. Pristis pectinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.|
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