|Scientific Name:||Presbytis rubicunda|
|Species Authority:||(Müller, 1838)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Subspecies are disputed as there is much intergradation between them, as well as variation within them.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Nijman, V. & Meijaard, E.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as this species is fairly common, with a wide distribution. It is found quite high in the mountains and is the least threatened colobine on Borneo. It is probably decreasing due to habitat loss, but most likely not at a rate sufficient to include it in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||The species occurs through most of the island of Borneo, in Indonesia (Kalimantan and Karimata Island), Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak), and possibly Brunei (Groves 2001).
Presbytis rubicunda rubicunda
Occurs in Indonesia (southeastern Kalimantan). Found roughly east of the Barito River and south of the Mahakam River (Groves 2001).
Presbytis rubicunda rubida
Occurs in Indonesia (southwestern Kalimantan). Found roughly south of the Kapuas River and west of the Barito River (Groves 2001).
Presbytis rubicunda ignita
Occurs in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sarawak), and possibly Brunei. Found north of the Kapuas River into Sarawak, as far as the Baram River and the borders of Brunei (Groves 2001).
Presbytis rubicunda chrysea
Occurs in Malaysia (Sabah). Confined to a very small area in eastern Sabah near Kinabatangan (Groves 2001).
Presbytis rubicunda carimatae
Confined to Karimata Island, Indonesia (Yanuar et al. 1993).
Native:Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Presbytis rubicunda is endemic to Borneo and adjacent Karimata Island (Davies 1991). Twenty-five studies were compiled to show that density is 2.6 (+/- 1.4) groups/km2, and 16.5 (+/- 9.1) individuals/km2 (V. Nijman pers. comm.). Density does not change with elevation up to 1,200 m; above this point, however, it quickly drops (V. Nijman pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||P. rubicunda is almost wholly arboreal, having a clear preference for primary forest. This colobine species’ annual diet is mostly comprised of folivory on young leaves (36%), seed eating (30%), and combined frugivory on pulpy, seedy fruits and florivory (34%). This diet varies throughout the year as availability of food sources shifts (Davies 1991). In Sabah, a group ofP. rubicunda was found to rely on lianas for about 32% of their total diet; the rest were tree species. Overall, the group exploited over 102 plant species over a single year (Davies 1984). It is also found in swamp forests (Chivers and Burton 1988), and evergreen forests (Bennett and Davies 1994). It occasionally visits native gardens in search of food (Yanuar et al. 1993). It is found in primary and secondary lowland forests, not above 2,000 m, and is able to tolerate forests that have regenerated after logging has taken place (Payne et al. 1985).|
|Major Threat(s):||The species is threatened by hunting for meat and traditional “medicine”, as well as loss of habitat due to deforestation. Much habitat is being lost to expanding oil palm plantations. Nevertheless, it is reasonably adaptable, and can occur in some secondary habitats.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is protected in Sarawak and Sabah (Malaysia), and is listed on CITES Appendix II. It is found in at least 10 protected areas including Betung Kerihun National Park, Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park, Ganung Palung National Park, Kayan Mentarang National Park, Kutai National Park, Pleihari Martapuri Nature Reserve, Tanjung Puting National Park, and the Sungai Wain Protection Forest (Indonesia); Sapagaya Forest Reserve, Ulu Segama Reserve (Malaysia) (M. Richardson pers. comm.).|
|Citation:||Nijman, V. & Meijaard, E. 2008. Presbytis rubicunda. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 13 December 2013.|
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