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Thelenota anax

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA ECHINODERMATA HOLOTHUROIDEA ASPIDOCHIROTIDA STICHOPODIDAE

Scientific Name: Thelenota anax
Species Authority: H. L. Clark, 1921
Common Name(s):
English Amberfish

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Data Deficient ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-05-18
Assessor(s): Conand, C., Purcell, S. & Gamboa, R.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B., Knapp, L., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.
Justification:
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific and is uncommon. It is increasingly being targeted in fisheries as the stocks of other species decline. However, little information or data exists to be able to adequately assess the impact of fisheries on this species population. It is listed as Data Deficient. More research is needed on this species' biology.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in the Indo-West Pacific from eastern Africa and Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, east to Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Spratly Islands, as far north as Japan, and southeast to French Polynesia and the Cook Islands.
Countries:
Native:
American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is considered uncommon.

In PNG from 1992 to 2006, densities decreased from 1 to 0.7 individuals per hectare (Kaly et al. 2007).

This species is heavily exploited in Indonesia (Tuwo 2004). Recent surveys in French Polynesia only found 2 individuals (Kronen et al. 2008). In Samoa, this species was not found in any surveys (Vunisea et al. 2008). In Tonga, up to 20 individuals per hectare were found in 2001-2008 (Friedman et al. 2009).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a rare species mostly found at depths between 10 to 30 m. It generally occurs on hard ground, large rubble and coral sand patches, on reef slopes, outer lagoon and near passes.

Little is known about this species' biology.

Generation length is unknown for this species. Body size is not a good indicator of age or longevity. There is some indication, however, that many echinoderms do not go through senescence, but simply regenerate. Therefore generation length cannot be estimated, but is assumed to be greater than several decades in a natural, un-disturbed environment.

Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested at low levels in parts of its range.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is the largest of the commercial species, but with a relatively low value. It was previously considered non-commercial, but has increasingly become an important commercial species in the past 20 years, as stocks of other species have been depleted. It is not as palatable as other species, so it is less sought after compared to other species, with some exceptions such as in the Philippines and Indonesia.

This species is of low value and is unexploited in the Torres Straight (Skewes 2004).

This species was rarely harvested until a few years ago, being generally found at low densities. It is now being collected by skin diving or using diving gear, making the populations potentially very vulnerable to overexploitation. The processed product is probably of low to moderate commercial value and the exploitation of this species should be avoided.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species at this time. This species may be present in some marine protected areas within its range.

Citation: Conand, C., Purcell, S. & Gamboa, R. 2013. Thelenota anax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 November 2014.
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