|Scientific Name:||Ceriops decandra|
|Species Authority:||(Griff.) Ding Hou|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is now considered to be C. zippeliana in the majority of its range (Sheue et al. 2009).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is rare with a restricted distribution. It has an area of occupancy estimated to be less than 4,500km2. It is threatened by habitat loss from coastal development throughout its range. Although exact population reduction is unknown, it is estimated to be between 12 - 26% over a twenty year period (1980-2000), and it is therefore listed as Near Threatened. However, with more information to estimate population reduction over a period of three generation lengths (120 years) declines would likely be much higher, and this species may likely qualify for a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Recent research has shown that the range of C. decandra is restricted to the east coast of India and Bangladesh, southwestern Thailand and western part of the Malay Peninsula. The middle and southern part of its range is now considered to be C. zippeliana (Sheue et al. 2009).|
Native:Bangladesh; India; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is considered to be rare in much of its range. In India, this species has been found in 20% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in mid to high intertidal regions. It has a maximum tolerance of salinity at 67 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth at 15 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This is a slow-growing species, and can be tolerant of extreme environmental conditions.|
This species is highly threatened by removal of mangrove areas for coastal development throughout its range. It is estimated that at between 12% (FAO 2007) and 26% of mangrove area has been lost within this species range over a 20 year period (1980-2000) (Duke et al. 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.|
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Ceriops decandra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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