|Scientific Name:||Sonneratia ovata|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species can be locally common within its range, but is increasingly rare at the extremities of its range. This species is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to the clearing of mangroves for fish and shrimp pond development. Although there is no data available on mangrove area loss over three generation lengths (120 years), mangrove loss within this species range is estimated to be 28% since the 1980s. There is reason to believe that this species may quality for a threatened category in the future due to the fact that it occurs only on the landward margin where it is the most vulnerable to coastal development and human activities in many parts of its range. It is listed as Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Brunei Darussalam, China (Hainan Island), Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, southern Viet Nam, Visayan Islands and northern Mindinao Philippines, Palau, and southern Papua New Guinea.|
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Indonesia; Malaysia; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This is species can be locally common, but is some regions it can also be rare. As with most mangrove species, this species becomes increasingly more rare at the extremities of its ranges.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in the downstream estuarine zone in the high intertidal region (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is a fast-growing and pioneering species that colonizes newly formed mudflats (Terrados et al. 1997). It can grow up to 20 m, and is found on primarily on firm mud on terra firma, which is the farthest distance from shore.|
This species is found primarily on the landward margin, and therefore it is more threatened by human activities and coastal development than other more seaward mangrove species. It is especially threatened by fish and shrimp pond development in the Philippines, and throughout its range. There has been an estimated 28% decline of mangrove area within its range over the past 25 years (1980-2005) (FAO 2007).
Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. Mangrove species with a habitat on the landward margin may be particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise if owing to coastal development their movement inland is blocked.
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas.Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. It is planted in some villages in Malaysia and Indonesia as a food source.|
|Citation:||Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Sonneratia ovata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|